Southern Pine Forests of North America

  • Robert A. Mickler
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 118)


The South’s pine forests, which were first glimpsed by English colonists at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607, Charleston, South Carolina, in 1608, and Savannah, Georgia, in 1733, were part of the South’s old-growth timber resource that was harvested by the early 1900s. The second growth, which naturally regenerated following the cutting of the primeval woodlands along with stands planted as a result of the United States’ newly developing forestry policies and programs, became the South’s “second forest.” Second-growth pine forests supplied the wood for the first southern pine mill built in Texas in 1939, which utilized a new process to extract pine resin from pulp for the production of paper. From the 1930s to the 1960s, this forest was utilized by the rapidly growing pulp and paper industry and for other wood-using industries. By the 1960s, this forest had been almost entirely cut. Professional foresters and forest industry personnel call today’s naturally regenerated and managed stands of southern pines and hardwoods the South’s “third forest.” This forest is being harvested today and is projected to sustain commercial harvesting into the next century.


Coastal Plain Forest Land Forest Inventory Pure Stand General Technical Report 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams DM, Haynes RW (1991) Softwood timber supply and the future of the southern forest economy. Southern J Applied Forestry 15(1):31–37.Google Scholar
  2. Andresen JW (1964) The taxonomic status of Pinus chiapensis. Phytologia 10:417–421.Google Scholar
  3. Andresen JW (1966) A multivariate analysis of the Pinus chiapensis-monticola-Strobus phylad. Phodora 68:1–24.Google Scholar
  4. Ashe WW (1895) Forest Fires: Their Destructive Work, Causes, and Prevention. North Carolina Geological Survey Bulletin 7, Raleigh, NC, p 37.Google Scholar
  5. Beltz RC, Cost ND, Kingsley NP, Peters JR (1992) Timber Volume Distribution Maps for the Eastern United States. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report WO-60, 59 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Buol SW, Hole FD, McCracken RJ (1989) Soil Genesis and Classification. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, 446 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Burns RM (1973) Sand pine: Distinguishing characteristics and distribution. In: Proceedings, Sand Pine Symposium. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report SE-2. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, NC, pp 13–17.Google Scholar
  8. Burns RM, Honkala BH (1990) Silvias of North America: 1. Conifers. US Dept of Agr, Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC, pp 497–512.Google Scholar
  9. Clark TD (1984) The Greening of the South. The University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, p 12.Google Scholar
  10. Cowdry AE (1983) This Land, This South. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, p 16.Google Scholar
  11. Critchfield WB, Little EL, Jr (1966) Geographic Distribution of the Pines of the World. US Dept of Agr Forest Serv Misc Publ 999: 1–97.Google Scholar
  12. Crutchfield DM, Trew IF (1961) Investigation of natural regeneration of pond pine. J Forestry 59(4): 264–266.Google Scholar
  13. Dial SC, Batson WT, Stalter R (1976) Some ecological and morphological observations of Pinus glabra Walter. Castanea 41: 361–377.Google Scholar
  14. Eyre FH (ed) (1980) Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC, 148 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Fenneman NM (1983) Physiography of the Eastern US. McGraw-Hill, New York, 714 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Fowells HA (1965) Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States. US Dept of Agr, Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC, 762 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Fries AL, Hamilton LG, Rights DL, Smith MJ (1943) Records of the Moravians in North Carolina. North Carolina Historical Comm, Raleigh, NC, p 2593.Google Scholar
  18. Guldin JM (1986) Ecology of shortleaf pine. In: Murphy PA (ed) Proceedings, Symposium on the Shortleaf Pine Ecosystem, March 31-April 2, 1986, LittleGoogle Scholar
  19. Rock, AR. Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, Monticello, AR, pp 25–40.Google Scholar
  20. Hack JT, Goodlett, JC (1960) Geomorphology and Forest Ecology of a Mountain Region in the Central Applachians. US Dept of the Interior Geological Survey, Professional Paper 347. Reston, VA, 66 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Haynes RW, Adams DM, Mills JR (1995) The RPA timber assessment update. General Technical Report RM-259. Fort Collins, CO. US Dept of Agr Forest Serv, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, pp 1–66.Google Scholar
  22. Hodgkins EJ (ed) (1965) Southeastern Forest Habitat Regions Based on Physiograghy. Auburn University. Forestry Departmental Series 2. Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, AL, 10 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Hofacker TH, Fowler RF, Webster K, Riffe M (1993) Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States 1992. USDA Forest Service Forest Pest Management, Washington, DC, 147 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Kellison RC, Zobel BJ (1973) Genetics of Virginia Pine. US Dept of Agr Forest Serv Research Paper WO-21, 10 pp.Google Scholar
  25. LaFarge T, Kraus JK (1980) A progeny test of (shortleaf × loblolly) × loblolly hybrids to produce rapid-growing hybrids resistant to fusiform rust. Silvae Genetica 29:197–200.Google Scholar
  26. Little EL (1971) Atlas of United States Trees. Vol. 1. Conifers and important hardwoods. US Dept of Agr Misc Publ 1146.Google Scholar
  27. Little EL, Critchfield WB (1969) Subdivisions of the Genus Pinus (Pines). US Dept of Agr Forest Serv Misc Publ 1144: 1–51.Google Scholar
  28. Lorio PL Jr, Hodges JD (1983) Microsite effect on oleoresin exudation pressure of large loblolly pine. Ecology 49: 1207–1210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Manwilier FG (1972) Wood and Bark Properties of Spruce Pine. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper SO-78. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA, p 25.Google Scholar
  30. Mattoon WR (1915) Life History of the Shortleaf Pine. US Dept of Agr Bull 244: 1–46.Google Scholar
  31. McMinn JW, Crane WH (1984) Five-year performane of selected woody species on an upper coastal plain spoil bank. Southern Applied Forestry 8: 207–209.Google Scholar
  32. Mills JR, Kincaid JC (1992) The aggregate timberland assessment system-ATLAS: a comprehensive timber projection model. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-281. Portland, OR., US Dept of Agr Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, pp 1–160.Google Scholar
  33. Mirov NT (1967) The Genus Pinus. Ronald Press Company, New York, 602 pp.Google Scholar
  34. McMinn JW, Crane WH (1984) Five-year performance of selected woody species on an upper coastal plain spoil bank. Southern J of Applied Forestry 8: 207–209.Google Scholar
  35. Powell DS, Faulkner JL, Darr DR, Zhu Z, MacCleery DW (1993) Forest Resources of the United States, 1992. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-234, Fort Collins, CO, 132 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Powers H (1982) Research may soon produce planting stock to fusiform rust. Forest Farmer 4291: 6–7.Google Scholar
  37. Price RA (1989) The genera of Pinaceae in the southeastern United States. J Arnold Arboretum 70: 247–305.Google Scholar
  38. Price TS, Doggett C, Pye JM, Holmes TP (1992) A History of Southern Pine Beetle Outbreaks in the Southeastern United States. Georgia Forestry Commission, Macon, GA, 70 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Schmidt RA, Goddard RE, Hollis CA, Smith WH (1972) Incidence and Distribution of Fusiform Rust in Slash Pine Plantations in Florida and Georgia. Florida Agric Exp Stn Bull 763, 21 pp.Google Scholar
  40. Snyder EB, Dinus RJ, Derr HJ (1977) Genetics of Longleaf Pine. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper WO-33. Washington, DC, 24 pp.Google Scholar
  41. Squillace AE (1966) Geographic variation in slash pine. Forest Sci Monograph 10: 1–56.Google Scholar
  42. Stewart JL (1985) Current use and potential for implementing forest management practices in intensive forest management in the USA. The Forest Chronicle 61(3): 240–242.Google Scholar
  43. Thornbury WB (1965) Regional Geomorphology of the United States. Wiley, New York, 609 pp.Google Scholar
  44. USDA Forest Service (1988) The South’s Fourth Forest: Alternatives for the Future. Forest Resource Report No 24, Washington, DC, p 512.Google Scholar
  45. USDA Forest Service (1989) Insects and Diseases of Trees in the South. US Dep of Agr Forest Service, Southern Region, Protection Report R8-PR 16, Atlanta, GA, 98 pp.Google Scholar
  46. USDA Forest Service (1993) Forest insect and disease conditions in the United States 1992. US Dept of Agr Forest Service, Forest Pest Management, Washington, DC, pp 1–147.Google Scholar
  47. Walker LC (1991) The Southern Forest: A Chronicle. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, 322 pp.Google Scholar
  48. Wells OO, Wakeley PC (1966) Geographicac variation in survival, growth, and fusiform rust infection of planted loblolly pine. Forest Sci Monograph 11, p 40.Google Scholar
  49. Williamson RK (1978) Followup on trees. Soil Conservation 43(10):9.Google Scholar
  50. Zobel DB (1969) Factors affecting the distribution of Pinus pugens, an Applachian endemic. Ecological Monographs 39: 304–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zobel DB (1970) Morphological characteristics of Pinus pugens. J Elisha Mitchell Scientific Soc 86: 214–221.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Mickler
    • 1
  1. 1.ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc.RaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations