The Cochlea pp 44-129 | Cite as

Structure of the Mammalian Cochlea

  • Norma B. Slepecky
Part of the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research book series (SHAR, volume 8)

Abstract

The cochlea within the inner ear contains the cells responsible for the perception of sound. Unfortunately for researchers, the structures of interest are housed in a rather inaccessible part of the skull, totally embedded in bone. In spite of this, the anatomy was well described in the mid-nineteenth century by Retzius, Huschke, Reissner, Kolliker, Deiters, Hensen, and Corti, names familiar even to present-day cochlear anatomists. From their studies, it was known that the cochlea is composed of a bony labyrinth, within which is found the cellular structures comprising the membranous labyrinth. These are easily seen in a section taken through the cochlea in a plane parallel to its long axis (Fig. 2.1).

Keywords

Permeability Glycerol Ischemia Dopamine Shrinkage 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altschuler RA, Parakkal MH, Rubio JA, Hoffman DW, Fex J (1984) Enkephalinlike immunoreactivity in the guinea pig organ of Corti: ultrastructural and lesion studies. Hear Res 16:17–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Altschuler RA, Hoffman DW, Reeks KA, Fex J (1985) Localization of dynorphin B-like and a-neo-endorphin-like immunoreactivities in the guinea pig organ of Corti. Hear Res 17:249–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Angelborg C, Engström H (1972) Supporting elements in the organ of Corti. Fibrillar structures in the supporting cells of the organ of Corti of mammals. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 301:49–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Angelborg CA, Engström H (1973) The normal organ of Corti. In: Moler AR (ed) Basic Mechanisms in Hearing. New York: Academic Press, pp. 125–182.Google Scholar
  5. Angelborg C, Engström B (1974) The tympanic covering layer. An electron microscopic study in the guinea pig. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 319:43–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Angelborg C, Slepecky N, Larsen HC, Soderberg L (1987) Colored microspheres for blood flow determinations twice in the same animal. Hear Res 27:265–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Anniko M, Arnesen AR (1988) Cochlear nerve topography and fiber spectrum in the pigmented mouse. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 245:155–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Arima T, Uemura T, Yamamoto T (1985) Structural features of the basal lamina in Reissner’s membrane of the guinea pig. Acta Otolaryngol 100:194–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Arima T, Uemura T, Yamamoto T (1986) Cytoskeletal organization in the supporting cell of the guinea pig organ of Corti. Hear Res 24:169–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Arima T, Uemura T, Yamamoto T (1987) Three-dimensional visualizations of the inner ear hair cell of the guinea pig. A rapid-freeze, deep-etch study of filamentous and membranous organelles. Hear Res 25:61–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Arima T, Kuraoka A, Toriyama R, Shibata Y, Uemura T (1991) Quick-freeze, deep-etch visualisation of the “cytoskeletal spring” of cochlear outer hair cells. Cell Tiss Res 263:91–97.Google Scholar
  12. Arnesen AR, Osen KK (1978) The cochlear nerve in the cat: topography, tonotopy and fiber spectrum. J Comp Neurol 178:661–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Arnold W, Anniko M (1990) Structurally based new functional interpretations of the subsurface cisternal network in human outer hair cells. Acta Otolaryngol 109:213–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Aschoff A, Ostwald J (1987) Different origins of cochlear efferents in some bat species, rats, and guinea pigs. J Comp Neurol 264:56–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Assad JA, Corey DP (1992) An active motor mediates adaptation by vertebrate hair cells. J Neurosci 12:3291–3309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Axelsson A (1968) The vascular anatomy of the cochlea in the guinea pig and man. Acta Otolaryngol 243:1–134.Google Scholar
  17. Axelsson A, Ryan A (1988) Comparative study of the vascular anatomy in the mammalian cochlea. In: Jahn AF, Santos-Sacchi JR (eds) Physiology of the Ear. New York: Raven Press, pp. 295–316.Google Scholar
  18. Bagger-Sjöbäck D, Engström B, Steinholtz L, Hillerdahl M (1987) Freeze-fracturing of the human stria vascularis. Acta Otolaryngol 103:64–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Balogh K, Koburg E (1965) Der Plexus Cochlearis. Arch Ohr Nas Kehkopfhel 185:638–690.Google Scholar
  20. Bannister LH, Dodson HC, Astbury AR, Douek EE (1988) The cortical lattice: a highly ordered system of subsurface filaments in the guinea pig cochlear outer hair cells. Prog Brain Res 74:213–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bauwens LJM, Veldman JE, Ramaekers FCS, Bouman H, Huizing EH (1991) Expression of intermediate filament proteins in the adult human cochlea. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 100:211–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Berglund AM, Ryugo DK (1986) A monoclonal antibody labels type II neurons of the spiral ganglion. Brain Res 382:327–332.Google Scholar
  23. Berglund AM, Ryugo DK (1987) Hair cell innervation by spiral ganglion neurones in the mouse. J Comp Neurol 255:560–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bodian D (1983) Electron microscopic atlas of the simian cochlea. Hear Res 9:201–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bohne BA, Carr DC (1985) Morphometric analysis of hair cells in the chinchilla cochlea. J Acoust Soc Am 77:153–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Borghesan E (1957) Modality of the cochlear humoral circulation. Laryngoscope 67:1266–1285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brechtelsbauer PB, Prazma J, Garret CG, Carrasco VN, Pillsbury HC (1990) Catecholaminergic innervation of the inner ear. Arch Otolaryngol 116:566–574.Google Scholar
  28. Bredberg G (1968) Cellular pattern and nerve supply of the human organ of Corti. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 236:85.Google Scholar
  29. Bredberg G, Lindeman HH, Ades H, West R (1970) Scanning electron microscopy of the organ of Corti. Science 170:861–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Brown MC (1987) Morphology of labeled afferent fibers in the guinea pig cochea. J Comp Neurol 260:591–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bruns V (1980) Basilar membrane and its anchoring system in the cochlea of the greater horseshoe bat. Anat Embryol 161:29–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bruns V, Schmieszek E (1980) Cochlear innervation of the greater horseshoe bat: demonstration of an acoustic fovea. Hear Res 3:27–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cabezudo LM (1978) The ultrastructure of the basilar membrane in the cat. Acta Otolaryngol 86:160–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Canlon B, Cartaud J, Changeux JP (1989) Localization of alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites on outer hair cells from the guinea pig cochlea. Acta Physiol Scand 137:549–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Carlisle L, Forge A (1989) The vessels of the stria vascularis: quantitative comparison of three rodent species. Hear Res 38:111–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Carlisle L, Zajic G, Altschuler RA, Schacht J, Thorne PR (1988) Species differences in the distribution of infracuticular F-actin in outer hair cells of the cochlea. Hear Res 33:201–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Comis SD, Pickles JO, Osborne MP (1985) Osmium tetroxide postfixation in relation to the cross-linkage and spatial organization of stereocilia in the guinea pig cochlea. J Neurocytol 14:113–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Conlee JW, Gerity LC, Westenberg IS, Creel DJ (1994) Pigment-dependent differences in the stria vascularis of albino and pigmented guinea pigs and rats. Hear Res 72:108–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Corey DP, Hudspeth AJ (1983) Kinetics of the receptor current in bullfrog saccular hair cells. J Neurosci 3:962–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Dannhof BJ, Bruns V (1993) The innervation of the organ of Corti in the rat. Hear Res 66:8–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dechesne CJ, Thomasset M (1988) Calbindin (CaBP 28 kDa) appearance and distribution during development of the mouse inner ear. Dev Brain Res 40:233–242.Google Scholar
  42. Dechesne CJ, Winsky L, Kim HN, Goping G, Vu TD, Wenthold RJ, Jacobowitz DM (1991) Identification and ultrastructural localization of a calretinin-like calcium-binding protein (protein 10) in the guinea pig and rat inner ear. Brain Res 560:139–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Densert O (1975) The effect of 6-hydroxydopamine on the rabbit cochlea. Acta Otolaryngol 79:339–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Densert O, Flock A (1974) An electron microscopic study of adrenergic innervation in the cochlea. Acta Otolaryngol 77:185–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dieler R, Shehata-Dieler WE, Brownell WE (1991) Concomitant salicylate-induced alterations of outer hair cell subsurface cisternae and electromotility. J Neurocytol 20:637–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Drenckhahn D, Kellner J, Mannherz HG, Groschel-Stewart U, Kendrick-Jones J, Scholey J (1982) Absence of myosin-like immunoreactivity in stereocilia of cochlear hair cells. Nature 300:531–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dulon D, Moataz R, Mollard P (1993) Characterization of calcium signals generated by extracellular nucleotides in supporting cells of the organ of Corti. Cell Calcium 14:245–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Dunn RA, Morest DK (1975) Receptor synapses without synaptic ribbons in the cochlea of the cat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:3599–3603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Duvall AJ, Rhodes VT (1967) Reissner’s membrane: an ultrastructural study. Arch Otolaryngol 80:143–151.Google Scholar
  50. Duvall AJ, Sutherland CR (1970) The ultrastructure of the extrasensory cells in the cochlear duct. In: Paparella MM (ed) Biochemical Mechanisms in Hearing and Deafness. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, pp. 149–170.Google Scholar
  51. Duvall AJ, Quick C, Sutherland C (1971) Horseradish peroxidase in the lateral cochlear wall: an electron microscopic study of transport. Arch Otolaryngol 93:304–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Echteler SM, Fay RR, Popper AN (1994) Structure of the mammalian cochlea. In: Fay RR, Popper AN (eds) Comparating Hearing: Mammals. New York: Springer Verlag, pp. 134–171.Google Scholar
  53. Ekström von Lubitz DKJ (1981) Subsurface tubular system in the outer sensory cells of the rat cochlea. Cell Tiss Res 220:787–795.Google Scholar
  54. Emmerling MR, Sobkowicz HM, Levenick CV, Scott GL, Slapnick SM, Rose JE (1990) Biochemical and morphological differentiation of acetylcholinesterasepositive efferent fibers in the mouse cochlea. J Elect Microscop Tech 15:123–143.Google Scholar
  55. Engström H (1958) Structure and innervation of the inner ear sensory epithelia. Int Rev Cytol 7:535–585.Google Scholar
  56. Evans BN (1990) Fatal contractions: ultrastructural and electromechanical changes in outer hair cells following transmembraneous electrical stimulation. Hear Res 45:265–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Eybalin M (1993) Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators of the mammalian cochlea. Physiol Rev 73:309–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Eybalin M, Altschuler RA (1990) Immunoelectron microscopic localization of neurotransmitters in the cochlea. J Elect Microscop Tech:209–224.Google Scholar
  59. Eybalin M, Ripoll C (1990) Immunolocalisation de la parvalbumine dans deux types de cellules glutamatergiques de la cochlée du cobaye; les cellules ciliées internes et les neurones du ganglion spiral. Compt Rend Acad Sci Paris 310:639–644.Google Scholar
  60. Fex J, Altschuler RA (1986) Neurotransmitter-related immunocytochemistry of the organ of Corti. Hear Res 22:249–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Flock A, Cheung HC (1977) Actin filaments in sensory hairs of inner ear receptor cells. J Cell Biol 75:339–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Flock A, Kimura R, Lundquist PG, Wersall J (1962) Morphological basis of directional sensitivity of the outer hair cells in the organ of Corti. J Acoust Soc Am 34:1351–1355.Google Scholar
  63. Flock A, Flock B, Murray E (1977) Studies on the sensory hairs of receptor cells in the inner ear. Acta Otolaryngol 83:85–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Flock A, Cheung HC, Flock B, Utter G (1981) Three sets of actin filaments in sensory cells of the inner ear. Identification and functional orientation determined by gel electrophoresis, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. J Neurocytol 10:133–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Flock Å, Bretscher A, Weber K (1982) Immunohistochemical localization of several cytoskeletal proteins in inner ear sensory and supporting cells. Hair Res 6:75–89.Google Scholar
  66. Flock Å, Flock B, Ulfendahl M (1986) Mechanisms of movement in outer hair cells and a possible structural basis. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 243:83–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Forge A (1982) A tubulo-cisternal endoplasmic reticulum system in the potassium transporting marginal cells of the stria vascularis and the effects of the ototoxic diuretic ethacrynic acid. Cell Tiss Res 226:375–387.Google Scholar
  68. Forge A (1984) Gap junctions in the stria vascularis and effects of ethacrynic acid. Hear Res 13:189–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Forge A (1987) Specializations of the lateral membrane of inner hair cells. Hear Res 31:99–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Forge A (1991) Structural features of the lateral walls in mammalian cochlear outer hair cells. Cell Tiss Res 265:473–483.Google Scholar
  71. Forge A, Davis S, Zajic G (1991) Assessment of ultrastructure in isolated cochlear hair cells using a procedure for rapid freezing before freeze-fracture and deep-etching. J Neurocytol 20:471–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Forge A, Zajic G, Li L, Nevill G, Schacht J (1993) Structural variability of the sub-surface cisternae in intact, isolated outer hair cells shown by fluorescent labelling of intracellular membranes and freeze-fracture. Hear Res 64:175–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Foster JD, Drescher MJ, Hatfield JS, Drescher DG (1994) Immunohistochemical localization of S-100 protein in auditory and vestibular end organs of the mouse and hamster. Hear Res 74:67–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Friede RL (1984) Cochlear axon calibers are adjusted to characteristic frequencies. J Neurol Sci 66:193–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Furness DN, Hackney CM (1985) Cross-links between stereocilia in the guinea pig cochlea. Hear Res 18:177–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Furness DN, Hackney CM (1990) Comparative ultrastructure of subsurface cisternae in inner and outer hair cells of the guinea pig cochlea. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 247:12–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Furness DN, Hackney CM, Steyger PS (1990) Organization of microtubules in cochlear hair cells. J Elect Microscop Tech 15:261–279.Google Scholar
  78. Gil-Loyzaga P, Pujol R (1990) Neurotoxicity of kainic acid in the rat cochlea during early developmental stages. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 248:40–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gil-Loyzaga PG, Gabrion J, Uziel A (1985) Lectins demonstrate the presence of carbohydrates in the tectorial membrane of mammalian cochlea. Hear Res 20:1–8.Google Scholar
  80. Ginzberg RD, Morest DK (1983) A study of cochlear innervation in the young cat with the Golgi method. Hear Res 10:227–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Gorgas K, Jahnke K (1974) The permeability of blood vessels in the guinea pig cochlea. II Vessels in the spiral ligament and the stria vascularis. Anat Embryol 146:33–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Guinan JJ, Warr WB, Norris BE (1982) Differential olivocochlear projections from lateral versus medial zones of the superior olivary complex. J Comp Neurol 221:358–370.Google Scholar
  83. Gulley RL, Reese TS (1976) Intercellular junctions in the reticular lamina of the organ of Corti. J Neurocytol 5:479–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gulley RL, Reese TS (1977) Regional specializations of the hair cell plasmalemma in the organ of Corti. Anat Rec 189:109–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hackney CM, Furness DN, Benos DJ (1991) Localization of putative mechanoelectrical transducer channels in cochlear hair cells by immunoelectron microscopy. Scan Microscop 5:741–746.Google Scholar
  86. Harding GW, Baggot PJ, Bohne BA (1992) Height changes in the organ of Corti after noise exposure. Hear Res 63:26–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hashimoto S, Kimura RS (1988) Computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry of the outer hair cells of the guinea pig cochlea. Acta Otolaryngol 105:64–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hasko JA, Richardson GP (1988) The ultrastructural organization and properties of the mouse tectorial membrane matrix. Hear Res 35:21–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Henson MM, Henson OW (1988) Tension fibroblasts and the connective tissue matrix of the spiral ligament. Hear Res 35:237–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Henson MM, Henson OW (1991) Specializations for sharp tuning in the mustached bat: the tectorial membrane and spiral limbus. Hear Res 56:122–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Henson MM, Jenkins DB, Henson OW (1982) The cells of Boettcher in the bat. Hear Res 7:91–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Henson MM, Jenkins DB, Henson OW (1983) Sustentacular cells of the organ of Corti—the tectal cells of the outer tunnel. Hear Res 10:153–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Henson M, Henson OW, Jenkins DB (1984) The attachment of the spiral ligament to the cochlear wall: anchoring cells and the creation of tension. Hear Res 16:231–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Henson MM, Burridge K, Fitzpatrick D, Jenkins DB, Pillsbury HC, Henson OW (1985) Immunocytochemical localization of contractile and contraction associated proteins in the spiral ligament of the cochlea. Hear Res 20:207–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hilding DA, Ginzburg RD (1977) Pigmentation of the stria vascularis. Arch Otolaryngol 84:24–37.Google Scholar
  96. Hirokawa N, Tilney LG (1982) Interactions between actin filaments and between actin filaments and membranes in quick-frozen and deeply etched hair cells of the chick ear. J Cell Biol 95:249–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Holley MC, Ashmore JF (1988) A cytoskeletal spring in cochlear outer hair cells. Nature 335:635–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Holley MC, Ashmore JF (1990) Spectrin, actin and the structure of the cortical lattice in mammalian cochlear outer hair cells. J Cell Sci 96:283–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Holley MC, Kalinec F, Kachar B (1992) Structure of the cortical cytoskeleton in mammalian outer hair cells. J Cell Sci 102:569–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hoshino T (1977) Contact between the tectorial membrane and the cochlear sensory hairs in the human and the monkey. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 217:53–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Howard J, Hudspeth AJ (1988) Compliance of the hair bundle associated with gating of mechanoelectrical transduction channels in the bullfrog’s saccular hair cell. Neuron 1:189–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Hozawa K, Kimura RS (1990) Cholinergic and noradrenergic nervous systems in the cynomolgus monkey cochlea. Acta Otolaryngol 110:46–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Hudspeth AJ (1982) Extracellular current flow and the site of transduction by vertebrate hair cells. J Neurosci 2:1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Hudspeth AJ, Corey DP (1977) Sensitivity, polarity, and conductance change in the response of vertebrate hair cells to controlled mechanical stimuli. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:2407–2411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Hunter-Duvar I (1978) Electron microscope assessment of the cochlea 2. Reissner’s membrane and endocytosis of cell debris. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 24:24–32.Google Scholar
  106. Ishiyama E, Cutt RA, Keels WW (1970) Distribution and ultrastructure of the Boettcher’s cells in mammals. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 79:54–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Ishiyama E, Keels EW, Weibel J (1970) New anatomical aspects of the vasculoepithelial zone of the spiral limbus in mammals. An electron microscope study. Acta Otolaryngol 70:319–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Ito M, Spicer SS, Schulte BA (1993) Immunohistochemical localization of brain type glucose transporter in mammalian inner ears: comparison of developmental and adult stages. Hear Res 71:230–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Itoh M (1982) Preservation and visualization of actin-containing filaments in the apical zone of cochlear sensory cells. Hear Res 6:277–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Iurato S (1960) Submicroscopic structure of the membranous labyrinth. I. The tectorial membrane. Z Zellforsch 52:105–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Iurato S (1961) Submicroscopic structure of the membranous labyrinth. II. The epithelium of Corti’s organ. Z Zellforsch 53:259–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Iurato S (1962) Submicroscopic structures of the membranous labyrinth. III. The supporting structures of Corti’s organ (basilar membrane, limbus spiralis and spiral ligament). Z Zellforsch 56:40–96.Google Scholar
  113. Iurato S (1967) Submicroscopic Structure of the Inner Ear. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  114. Iurato S, Franke K, Luciano L, Wermbter G, Pannese E, Reale E (1976a) Fracture faces of the junctional complexes in the reticular membrane of the organ of Corti. Acta Otolaryngol 81:36–47.Google Scholar
  115. Iurato S, Franke K, Luciano L, Wermbter G, Pannese E, Reale E (1976b) Intercellular junctions in the organ of Corti as revealed by freeze fracturing. Acta Otolaryngol 82:57–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Iwano T, Yamamoto A, Omori K, Akayama M, Kumazawa T, Tashiro Y (1989) Quantitative immunocytochemical localization of Na+K+ ATPase-α subunit in the lateral wall of rat cochlear duct. J Histochem Cytochem 37:353–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Jahnke K (1975) The fine structure of freeze-fracture intercellular junctions in the guinea pig inner ear. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 336:1–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Jahnke K (1980) The blood-perilymph barrier. Arch Oto-Rhino-Laryngol 228:29–34.Google Scholar
  119. Jaramillo F, Hudspeth AJ (1990) Localization of the hair cell’s transduction channels at the hair bundle’s top by iontophoretic application of a channel blocker. Neuron 7:409–420.Google Scholar
  120. Jones N, Fex J, Altschuler RA (1987) Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity identifies possible catecholaminergic fibers in the organ of Corti. Hear Res 30:33–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Jorgensen JM, Flock Å (1976) Non-innervated sense organs of the lateral line. J Neurocytol 5:33–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Juhn SK (1988) Barrier systems in the inner ear. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 458:79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Keithley EM, Ryan AF, Woolf NK (1993) Fibronectin-like immunoreactivity of the basilar membrane of young and aged rats. J Comp Neurol 327:612–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kellerhals B, Engström H, Ades HW (1967) Die Morphologie des Ganglion Spiral Cochleae. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 226:1–78.Google Scholar
  125. Kerr TP, Ross MD, Ernst SA (1982) Cellular localization of Na+, K+-ATPase in the mammalian cochlear duct: significance for cochlear fluid balance. Am J Otolaryngol 3:332–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Khalkhali-Ellis Z, Hemming FW, Steel KP (1987) Glycoconjugates of the tectorial membrane. Hear Res 1:81–94.Google Scholar
  127. Kiang NYS, Rho JM, Northrop CC, Liberman MC, Ryugo DK (1982) Hair cell innervation by spiral ganglion cells in adult cats. Science 217:175–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kikuchi T, Takasaka T, Tonosaki A, Kator Y, Shinkawa H (1991) Microtubules of guinea pig cochlear epithelial cells. Acta Otolaryngol 111:286–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kikuchi T, Kimura RS, Paul DL, Adams JC (1995) Gap junction systems in the rat cochlea: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Anat Embryol 191:101–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Kimura RS (1966) Hairs of the cochlear sensory cells and their attachment to the tectorial membrane. Acta Otolaryngol 61:55–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Kimura RS (1975) The ultrastructure of the organ of Corti. Int Rev Cytol 42:173–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kimura RS (1986) An electron microscopic study of cochlear nerve fibers followed serially from spiral ganglion to organ of Corti. Ear Res Jpn 17:4–7.Google Scholar
  133. Kimura RS, Ota CY, Takahasi T (1979) Nerve fiber synapses on spiral ganglion cells in the human cochlea. Ann Oto Rhinol Laryngol 88:1–17.Google Scholar
  134. Kimura RS, Bongiorno CL, Iverson NA (1987) Synapses and ephapses in the spiral ganglion. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 438:3–18.Google Scholar
  135. Kronester-Frei A (1978) Ultrastructure of the different zones of the tectorial membrane. Cell Tiss Res 193:11–23.Google Scholar
  136. Kuijpers W, Tonnaer ELGM, Peters TA, Ramaekers FCS (1991) Expression of intermediate filament proteins in the mature inner ear of the rat and guinea pig. Hear Res 52:133–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kuriyama H, Shioska S, Sekitani M, Tohyama Y, Kitajiri M, Yamashita T, Kumazawa T, Tohyama M (1990) Electron microscopic observation of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity in the organ of Corti of the rat. Brain Res 517:76–80.Google Scholar
  138. Laurikainen EA, Kim D, Didier A, Ren T, Miller JM, Quirk WS, Nuttall AL (1993) Stellate ganglion drives sympathetic regulation of cochlear blood flow. Hear Res 64:199–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Legrand C, Brehier A, Clavel MC, Thomasset M, Rabie A (1988) Cholecalcin (28kDa CaBP) in the rat cochlea. Dev Brain Res 38:121–129.Google Scholar
  140. Lenoir M, Puel JL, Pujol R (1987) Stereocilia and tectorial membrane development in the rat cochlea. A scanning electron microscopy study. Anat Embryol 175:477–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Liberman MC (1980a) Efferent synapses in the inner hair cell area of the cat cochlea: an electron microscopic study of serial sections. Hear Res 3:189–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Liberman MC (1980b) Morphologial differences among radial afferent fibers in the cat cochlea. Hear Res 3:45–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Liberman MC, Oliver ME (1984) Morphometry of intracellularly labelled neurons of the auditory nerve. J Comp Neurol 223:163–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Liberman MC, Dodds LW, Pierce S (1990) Afferent and efferent innervations of the cat cochlea: quantitative analysis with light and electron microscopy. J Comp Neurol 301:443–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Lim DJ (1972) Fine morphology of the tectorial membrane. Arch Otolaryngol 96:199–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Lim DJ (1986) Functional structure of the organ of Corti: a review. Hear Res 22:117–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Lim DJ, Karaabinas C, Trune DR (1983) Histochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase in the inner ear. Am J Otolaryngol 4:33–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Lohuis PJFM, Patterson K, Rarey KE (1990) Quantitative assessment of the rat stria vascularis. Hear Res 47:95–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Meyer zum Gottesberge AM, Tsujikawa S (1993) Glycerol effect on the guinea pig tectorial membrane. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 250:88–91.Google Scholar
  150. Miles FP, Nuttall AL (1988) In vivo capillary diameters in the stria vascularis and spiral ligament of the guinea pig cochlea. Hear Res 33:191–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Morera D, del Sasso A, Iurato S (1980) Submicroscopic structure of the spiral ligament in man. Rev Laryngol 101:73–85.Google Scholar
  152. Morrison D, Schindler RA, Wersäll J (1975) A quantitative analysis of the afferent innervation of the organ of Corti in the guinea pig. Acta Otolaryngol 79:1–23.Google Scholar
  153. Munyer PD, Schulte BA (1991) Immunohistochemical identification of proteoglycans in gelatinous membranes of cat and gerbil inner ear. Hear Res 52:369–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Munyer PD, Schulte BA (1994) Immunohistochemical localization of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate proteoglycans in subregions of the tectorial and basilar membranes. Hear Res 79:83–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Nadol JB (1978) Intercellular junctions in the organ of Corti. Ann Oto Rhino Laryngol 87:70–80.Google Scholar
  156. Nadol JB (1983) Serial section reconstruction of the neural poles of hair cells in the human organ of Corti. II. Outer hair cells. Laryngoscope 93:780–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Nadol JB (1988) Comparative anatomy of the cochlea and auditory nerve in mammals. Hear Res 34:253–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Nadol JF (1989) Morphometric analysis of normal human spiral ganglion cells. Abstract ARO 12:76.Google Scholar
  159. Nadol JB, Mulroy MJ, Goodenough DA, Weiss TF (1976) Tight and gap junctions in a vertebrate inner ear. Am J Anat 147:281–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Neugebauer DC, Thurm U (1986) Surface charges influence the distances between vestibular stereovilli. Naturwissenschaft 73:508–509.Google Scholar
  161. Nielsen DW, Slepecky N (1986) Stereocilia: In: Altschuler RA, Hoffman DW, Bobbin RP (eds) Neurobiology of Hearing: The Cochlea. New York: Raven Press, pp. 23–46.Google Scholar
  162. Nishida Y, Fujimoto T, Takagi A, Honjo I, Ogawa K (1993) Fodrin is a constituent of the cortical lattice in outer hair cells of the guinea pig cochlea: immunocyto-chemical evidence. Hear Res 65:274–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Nomura Y (1970) Histochemistry of the cochlea. Seitai Nokagak 21:68–80.Google Scholar
  164. Oesterle EC, Sarthy PV, Rubel EW (1990) Intermediate filaments in the inner ear of normal and experimentally damaged guinea pigs. Hear Res 47:1–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Oesterle EC, Dallos P (1989) Intracellular recordings from supporting cells in the guinea pig cochlea: AC potentials. J Acoust Soc Am 86:1013–1032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Osborne MP, Comis SD (1990) High resolution scanning electron microscopy of stereocilia in the cochlea of normal, postmortem and drug-treated guinea pigs. J Elect Microscop Tech 15:245–260.Google Scholar
  167. Osborne MP, Comis SC, Pickles JO (1988) Further observations on the fine structure of tip links between stereocilia of the guinea pig cochlea. Hear Res 35:99–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Pack AK, Slepecky NB (1995) Cytoskeletal and calcium-binding proteins in the mammalian organ of Corti: cell type-specific proteins displaying longitudinal and radial gradients. Hear Res 92:119–135.Google Scholar
  169. Pickles JO, Comis SD, Osborne MP (1984) Cross-links between stereocilia in the guinea pig organ of Corti, and their possible relation to sensory transduction. Hear Res 15:103–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Plinkert PK, Gitter AH, Zimmerman U, Kirchner T, Tzartos S, Zenner HP (1990) Visualization and functional testing of acetylcholine receptor-like molecules in cochlear outer hair cells. Hear Res 44:25–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Preston RE, Wright CG (1974) Pinocytosis in the pillar cells of the organ of Corti. Acta Otolaryngol 78:333–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Prieto JJ, Merchan JA (1987) Regional specialization of the cell coat in the hair cells of the organ of Corti. Hear Res 31:223–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Prieto JJ, Rubio ME, Merchan JA (1990) Localization of anionic sulfate groups in the tectorial membrane. Hear Res 45:283–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Puel J, Pujol R (1992) Selective glutamate antagonists block the excitotoxicity caused either by glutamate agonists or by ischemia; In: Cazals Y, Demany L, Homer K (eds) Advances in Biosciences: Auditory Physiology and Perception. Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 589–598.Google Scholar
  175. Pujol R, Carlier E (1981) Cochlear synaptogenesis after section of the efferent bundle. Dev Brain Res 3:151–154.Google Scholar
  176. Pujol R, Lenoir M (1986) The four types of synapses in the organ of Corti. In: Altschuler RA, Hoffman DW, Bobbin RP (eds) Neurobiology of Hearing: The Cochlea. New York: Raven Press, pp. 161–172.Google Scholar
  177. Qvortrup K, Rostgaard J (1990a) Mesothelium of Reissner’s membrane in guinea pigs: an electron microscopic study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 248:57–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Qvortrup K, Rostgaard J (1990b) Three-dimensional organization of a transcellular tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum in epithelial cells of Reissner’s membrane in the guinea pig. Cell Tiss Res 261:287–299.Google Scholar
  179. Raphael Y, Altschuler RA (1991) Reorganization of cytoskeletal and junctional proteins during cochlear hair cell degeneration. Cell Motil Cytoskel 18:215–227.Google Scholar
  180. Raphael Y, Altschuler RA (1992) Early microfilament reorganization in injured auditory epithelia. Exp Neurol 115:32–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Raphael Y, Wroblewski R (1968) Linkage of sub-membrane cisterns with the cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane in cochlear outer hair cells. J Submicrosc Cytol 18:730–733.Google Scholar
  182. Raphael Y, Marshak GH, Barash A, Geiger B (1987) Modulation of intermediate-filament expression in developing cochlear epithelium. Differentiation 35:151–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Raphael Y, Volk T, Crossin KL, Edelman GM, Geiger B (1988) The modulation of cell adhesion expression and intercellular junction formation in the developing avian inner ear. Dev Biol 128:222–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Raphael Y, Lenoir M, Wroblewski R, Pujol R (1991) The sensory epithelium and its innervation in the mole rat cochlea. J Comp Neurol 314:367–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Rasmussen G (1940) Studies of the VIIIth cranial nerve of man. Laryngoscope 50:67–83.Google Scholar
  186. Rasmussen GL (1953) Further observations of the efferent cochlear bundle. J Comp Neurol 99:61–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Reale E, Luciano L, Franke K, Pannese E, Wermbter G, Iurato S (1975) Intercellular junctions in the vascular stria and spiral ligament. J Ultrastruct Res 53:284–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Reiss G, Raphael Y (1992) Atypical cells in the normal guinea pig organ of Corti as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Microscop Res Tech 20:288–297.Google Scholar
  189. Richardson GP, Russell IJ, Duance VC, Bailey AJ (1987) Polypeptide composition of the mammalian tectorial membrane. Hear Res 25:45–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Rodriguez-Echandia EL, Burgos MH (1965) The fine structure of the stria vascularis of the guinea pig inner ear. Z Zellforsch 67:600–619.Google Scholar
  191. Romand R, Romand MR (1984) The ontogenesis of pseudomonopolar cells in spiral ganglion of cat and rat. Acta Otolaryngol 97:239–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Romand R, Romand MR, Marty R (1981) Regional differences in fiber size in the cochlear nerve. J Comp Neurol 198:1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Romand R, Hafidi A, Despres G (1988) Immunocytochemical localization of neurofilament protein subunits in the spiral ganglion of the adult rat. Brain Res 462:167–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Romand R, Sobkowicz H, Emmerling M, Whitlon D, Dahl D (1990) Patterns of neurofilament stain in the spiral ganglion of the developing and adult mouse. Hear Res 49:119–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Rosenbluth J (1962) The fine structure of the acoustic ganglion in the rat. J Cell Biol 12:329–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Ross MD (1973) Autonomic components of the VIII nerve. Adv Otorhinolaryngol 20:316–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Ross MD (1978) Glycogen accumulation in Reissner’s membrane following chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine. Acta Otolaryngol 86:313–330.Google Scholar
  198. Ross MD, Burkel W (1973) Multipolar neurons in the spiral ganglion of the rat. Acta Otolaryngol 76:381–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Ross MD, Liu R, Preston RE, Wright CG (1974) Changes in conformation in hair cell stereocilia of the rat spiral organ of Corti after 6-hydroxydopamine as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Audiology 13:290–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Roth B, Bruns V (1992) Postnatal development of the rat organ of Corti. Anat Embryol 185:571–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Russell IJ (1983) Origin of the receptor potential in inner hair cells of the mammalian cochlea—evidence for Davis’ theory. Nature 301:334–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Russell IJ, Richardson GP, Cody AR (1986) Mechanosensitivity of mammalian auditory hair cells in vitro. Nature 321:517–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Saito K (1980) Fine structure of the sensory epithelium of guinea pig organ of Corti: afferent and efferent synapses of hair cells. J Ultrastruct Res 71:222–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Saito K (1983) Fine structure of the sensory epithelium of guinea-pig organ of Corti: subsurface cisternae and lamellar bodies in the outer hair cells. Cell Tiss Res 229:467–481.Google Scholar
  205. Saito K, Hama K (1982) Structural diversity of microtubules in the supporting cells of the sensory epithelium of guinea pig organ of Corti. J Electron Microsc 311:278–281.Google Scholar
  206. Santi PA (1988) Cochlear microanatomy and ultrastructure. In: Jahn AF, Santos-Sacchi J (eds) Physiology of the Ear. New York: Raven Press, pp. 173–199.Google Scholar
  207. Santi PA, Anderson CB (1987) A newly identified surface coat on cochlear hair cells. Hear Res 27:47–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Santi PA, Lakhani BN, Bingham C (1983) The volume density of cells and capillaries of the normal stria vascularis. Hear Res 11:7–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Santi PA, Larson JT, Furcht LT, Economou TS (1989) Immunohistochemical localization of fibronectin in the chinchilla cochlea. Hear Res 39:91–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Santi PA, Lease MK, Harrison RP, Wicker EM (1990) Ultrastructure of proteogly-cans in the tectorial membrane. J Electron Microsc Tech 15:293–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Santos-Sacchi J (1978) Cytoplasmic microtubules in strial marginal cells. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 218:297–300.Google Scholar
  212. Santos-Sacchi J (1982) An electron microscopic study of microtubules in the development of marginal cells of the mouse stria vascularis. Hear Res 6:7–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Santos-Sacchi J (1986) Dye coupling in the organ of Corti. Cell Tiss Res 245:525–529.Google Scholar
  214. Santos-Sacchi J, Marovitz WF (1980) An evaluation of normal strial capillary transport using the electron-opaque tracers ferritin and iron dextran. Acta Otolaryngol 89:12–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Schrott A, Egg G, Spoendlin H (1988) Intermediate filaments in the cochleas of normal and mutant (w/wv, sl/sld) mice. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 245:250–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Schulte BA (1993) Immunohistochemical localization of intracellular Ca2+-ATPase in outer hair cells, neurons and fibrocytes in the adult and developing inner ear. Hear Res 65:262–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Schulte BA, Adams JC (1989a) Distribution of immunoreactive Na+, K+-ATPase in gerbil cochlea. J Histochem Cytochem 37:127–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Schulte BA, Adams JC (1989b) Immunohistochemical localizations of vimentin in the gerbil inner ear. J Histochem Cytochem 37:1787–1797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Schulte BA, Steel KP (1994) Expression of and ß subunit isoforms of Na+, K+ ATPase in the mouse inner ear and changes with mutations at the Wv or Sld loci. Hear Res 78:259–260.Google Scholar
  220. Schwartz A (1986) Auditory nerve and spiral ganglion cells. In: Altschuler RA, Hoffman DW, Bobbin RP (eds) Neurobiology of Hearing: The Cochlea. New York: Raven Press, pp. 271–282.Google Scholar
  221. Shepherd GM, Barres BA, Corey DP (1989) “Bundle blot” purification and initial protein characterization of hair cell stereocilia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:4973–4977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Shi SR, Tandon AK, Cote C, Kalra KL (1992) S-100 protein in human inner ear: use of a novel immunohistochemical technique on routinely processed, celloidinembedded human temporal bone sections. Laryngoscope 102:734–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Shi SR, Tandon AK, Hausmann RRM, Kalra KL, Taylor CR (1993) Immunohistochemical study of interemediate filament proteins on routinely processed, celloidinembedded human temporal bone sections using a new technique for antigen-retrieval. Acta Otolaryngol 113:48–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Simmons DD, Liberman MC (1988) Afferent innervation of outer hair cells in adult cats. J Comp Neurol 270:132–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Slepecky NB (1989a) Cytoplasmic actin and cochlear outer hair cell motility. Cell Tiss Res 257:69–75.Google Scholar
  226. Slepecky NB (1989b) An infracuticular network is not required for outer hair cell shortening. Hear Res 38:135–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Slepecky NB (1993) Ultrastructure of the inner ear. In Friedmann I, Arnold W (eds) Pathology of the Ear. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  228. Slepecky NB (1995) Sensory and supporting cells of the organ of Corti —cytoskeletal organization related to cellular function. In: Flock A, Ottoson D, Ulfendahl M (eds) Active Hearing. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific 87:104.Google Scholar
  229. Slepecky NB, Chamberlain SC (1982) Distribution and polarity of actin in the sensory hair cells of the chinchilla cochlea. Cell Tiss Res 224:15–24.Google Scholar
  230. Slepecky NB, Chamberlain SC (1983) Distribution and polarity of actin in inner ear supporting cells. Hear Res 10:359–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Slepecky NB, Chamberlain SC (1985a) The cell coat of inner ear sensory and supporting cells as demonstrated by ruthenium red. Hear Res 17:281–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Slepecky NB, Chamberlain SC (1985b) Immunoelectron microscopic and immunofluorescent localization of cytoskeletal and muscle-like contractile proteins in inner ear sensory hair cells. Hear Res 20:245–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Slepecky NB, Chamberlain SC (1987) Tropomyosin co-localizes with actin micro-filaments and microtubules within supporting cells of the inner ear. Cell Tiss Res 248:63–66.Google Scholar
  234. Slepecky NB, Hamernik R, Handerson D, Coling D (1982) Correlation of audiometric data with changes in cochlear hair cell stereocilia resulting from impulse noise trauma. Acta Otolaryngol 93:329–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Slepecky NB, Henderson CG, Saha S (1995) Post-translational modifications of tubulin suggest that dynamic microtubules are present in sensory cells and stable microtubules are present in supporting cells of the mammalian cochlea. Hear Res 91:136–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Slepecky NB, Ligotti P (1992) Characterization of inner ear sensory hair cells after rapid-freezing and free-substitution. J Neurocytol 21:374–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Slepecky NB, Savage J (1994) Expression of actin isoforms in the guinea pig organ of Corti: muscle isoforms are not detected. Hear Res 73:16–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Slepecky NB, Ulfendahl M (1992) Actin-binding and microtubule associated proteins in the organ of Corti. Hear Res 57:201–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Slepecky NB, Ulfendahl M (1993) Evidence for calcium-binding proteins and calcium-dependent regulatory proteins in sensory cells of the organ of Corti. Hear Res 70:73–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Slepecky NB, Hamernik RP, Henderson D (1981) The consistent occurrence of a striated organelle (Friedmann body) in the inner hair cells of the normal chinchilla. Acta Otolaryngol 91:189–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Slepecky NB, Ulfendahl M, Flock Å(1988) Effects of caffeine and tetracine on outer hair cell shortening suggest intracellular calcium involvement. Hear Res 32:11–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Slepecky NB, Cefaratti LK, Yoo TJ (1992) Type II and type IX collagen form heterotypic fibers in the tectorial membrane of the inner ear. Matrix 12:80–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Slepecky NB, Savage JE, Cefaratti LK, Yoo TJ (1992) Electron microscopic localization of type II, IX and V collagen in the organ of Corti. Cell Tiss Res 267:413–418.Google Scholar
  244. Sliwinska-Kowalska M, Parakkal M, Schneider ME, Fex J (1989) CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the guinea pig organ of Corti: a light and electron microscopic study. Hear Res 42:83–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Smith C (1957) Structure of the stria vascularis and spiral prominence. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 66:521–536.Google Scholar
  246. Smith CA (1968) Ultrastructure of the organ of Corti. Adv Sci 24:419–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Smith CA (1972) Vascular patterns of the membranous labyrinth. In: de Lorenzo AJD (ed) Vascular Disorders and Hearing Defects. Baltimore: University Park Press, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  248. Smith CA (1975) Innervation of the cochlea of the guinea pig by use of the Golgi stain. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 84:443–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Smith CA, Sjostrand FS (1961a) Structure of the nerve endings on the external hair cells of the guinea pig cochlea as studied by serial sections. J Ultrastruct Res 5:523–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Smith CA, Sjostrand FS (1961b) A synaptic structure in the hair cells of the guinea pig cochlea. J Ultrastruct Res 5:184–192.Google Scholar
  251. Sobkowicz HM, Slapnick SM (1994) The efferents interconnecting auditory inner hair cells. Hear Res 75:81–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Sobkowicz HM, Rose JE, Scott GL, Levenick CV (1986) Distribution of synaptic ribbons in the developing organ of Corti. J Neurocytol 15:693–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Sobkowicz HM, Slapnick SM, August BK (1993) Presynaptic fibers of spiral neurons and reciprocal synapses in the organ of Corti in culture. J Neurocytol 22:979–993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Spicer SS, Schulte BA (1991) Differentiation of inner ear fibrocytes according to their ion transport related activity. Hear Res 56:53–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Spicer SS, Schulte BA (1992) Creatine kinase in epithelium of the inner ear. J Histochem Cytochem 40:185–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Spicer SS, Schulte BA (1993) Cytologic structures unique to Deiters cells of the cochlea. Anat Rec 237:421–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Spicer SS, Schulte BA (1994a) Differences along the place-frequency map in the structure of supporting cells in the gerbil cochlea. Hear Res 79:161–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Spicer SS, Schulte BA (1994b) Ultrastructural differentiation of the first Hensen cell as a distinct cell type. Anat Rec 240:149–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Spoendlin H (1966) The organization of the cochlear receptor. Adv Otorhinolaryngol 13:1–227.Google Scholar
  260. Spoendlin H (1968) Ultrastructure and peripheral innervation pattern of the receptor in relation to the first coding of the acoustic message. In: DeReuck AVS, Knight J (eds) Hearing Mechanisms in Vertebrates. London: Churchill, pp. 89–119.Google Scholar
  261. Spoendlin H (1973) Innervation of the cochlear receptor. In: Moller A (ed) Basic Mechanisms in Hearing. New York: Academic Press, pp. 185–230.Google Scholar
  262. Spoendlin H (1979) Neural connections of the outer hair cell system. Acta Otolaryngol 87:381–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Spoendlin H (1981) Autonomic innervation of the inner ear. Adv Otorhinolaryngol 27:1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Spoendlin H, Lichtensteiger W (1966) The adrenergic innervation of the labyrinth. Acta Otolaryngol 61:423–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Spoendlin H, Schrott A (1988) The spiral ganglion and the innervation of the human organ of Corti. Acta Otolaryngol 105:403–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Steel KP (1986) Tectorial membrane. In: Altschuler RA, Hoffman DW, Bobbin RP (eds) Neurobiology of Hearing: The Cochlea. New York: Raven Press, pp. 139–148.Google Scholar
  267. Steyger PS, Furness DN, Hackney CM, Richardson GP (1989) Tubulin and microtubules in cochlear hair cells: comparative immunocytochemistry and ultrastructure. Hear Res 42:1–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Strelioff D, Flock A (1984) Stiffness of sensory cell hair bundles in the isolated guinea pig cochlea. Hear Res 15:19–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Sugiyama S, Spicer SS, Munyer PD, Schulte BA (1991) Histochemical analysis of glycoconjugates in gelatinous membranes of the gerbil’s inner ear. Hear Rees 55:263–272.Google Scholar
  270. Sugiyama S, Spicer SS, Munyer PD, Schulte BA (1992) Ultrastructural localization and semiquantitative analysis of glycoconjugates in the tectorial membrane. Hear Res 58:35–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Suzuki H, Lee YC, Tachibana M, Hozawa K, Watayna H, Takasaka T (1992) Quantitative carbohydrate analyses of the tectorial and otoconial membranes of the guinea pig. Hear Res 60:45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Swetlitschkin R, Vollrath L (1988) Synaptic bodies in the different rows of outer hair cells in the guinea pig cochlea. Ann Oto Rhinol Laryngol 97:308–312.Google Scholar
  273. Takahashi T, Kimura RS (1970) The ultrastructure of the spiral ligament in the rhesus monkey. Acta Otolaryngol 69:46–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Takasaka T, Shinkawa H, Hashimoto H, Watanuki K, Kawamoto K (1983) High-voltage electron microscopic study of the inner ear. Technique and preliminary results. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 101:1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Tange RA, Hodde KC (1984) The microvasculature of the cochlea and the vestibular system as seen in scanning electron microscopy. Clin Otolaryngol 9:306.Google Scholar
  276. Terayama Y, Holz E, Beck C (1966) Adrenergic innervation of the cochlea. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 75:69–86.Google Scholar
  277. Terayama Y, Yamamoto K, Sakamoto T (1968) Electron microscopic observations on the ostganglionic sympathetic fibers in the guinea pig cochlea. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 72:1152–1171.Google Scholar
  278. Thalmann I (1993) Collagen of accessory structures of organ of Corti. Conn Tiss Res 29:199–201.Google Scholar
  279. Thalmann I, Thallinger G, Comegys TH, Thalmann R (1985) Collagen II the predominate protein of the tectorial membrane. Otorhinolaryngology 48:116–123.Google Scholar
  280. Thalmann I, Thallinger G, Comegys TH, Crouch EC, Barrett N, Thalmann R (1987) Composition and supramolecular organization of the tectorial membrane. Laryngoscope 97:357–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Thomasen E (1966) The ultrastructure of the spiral ganglion in the guinea pig. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 224:442–448.Google Scholar
  282. Thompson GC, Cortez AM, Igarashi M (1986) GABA-like immunoreactivity in the squirrel organ of Corti. Brain Res 372:72–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Thorne PR, Carlisle L, Zajic G, Schacht J, Altschuler RA (1987) Differences in the distribution of F-actin in outer hair cells along the organ of Corti. Hear Res 30:253–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Tilney LG, DeRosier DJ (1985) The organization of actin filaments in the stereocilia of the hair cells of the cochlea. In: Drescher DG (ed) Auditory Biochemistry. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, pp. 281–309.Google Scholar
  285. Tilney LG, De Rosier DJ, Mulroy MJ (1980) The organization of actin filaments in the stereocilia of cochlear hair cells. J Cell Biol 86:244–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Tilney LG, Tilney MS, De Rosier DJ (1992) Actin filaments, stereocilia, and hair cells. How cells count and measure. Annu Rev Cell Biol 8:257–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Torihara K, Morimitsu T, Suganuma T (1995) Anionic sites of Reissner’s membrane, stria vascularis, and spiral prominence. J Histochem Cytochem 43:299–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Tucker JB, Paton CC, Richardson GP, Mogensen MM, Russell IJ (1992) A cell surface-associated centrosomal layer of microtubule-organizing material in the inner pillar cell of the mouse cochlea. J Cell Sci 102:215–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Usami S-I, Hozawa J, Tazawa M, Yoshihara T, Igarashi M, Thompson GC (1988) Immunocytochemical study of catecholaminergic innervation in the guinea pig cochlea. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 447:36–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Vater MM, Lenoir M (1992) Ultrastructure of the horseshoe bat’s organ of Corti. I Scanning electron microscopy. J Comp Neurol 318:367–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Vater M, Lenoir M, Pujol R (1992) Ultrastructure of the horseshoe bat’s organ of Corti. II Transmission electron microscopy. J Comp Neurol 318:380–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Warr WB (1992) Organization of olivocochlear efferent systems in mammals. In: Webster DB, Popper A, Fay RR (eds) Mammalian Auditory Pathways: Neuro-anatomy. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 410–448.Google Scholar
  293. Warr WB, Guinan JJ (1979) Efferent innervation of the organ of Corti: two separate systems. Brain Res 173:152–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Watanabe K, Ogawa A (1984) Carbonic anhydrase activity in stria vascularis and dark cells in vestibular labyrinth. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 93:262–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Watanuki K (1968) Some morphological observations of Reissner’s membrane. Acta Otolaryngol 66:40–48.Google Scholar
  296. Weaver SP, Hoffpauir J, Schweitzer L (1993) Actin distribution along the lateral wall of gerbil outer hair cells. Brain Res Bull 31:225–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Whitlon DS (1993) E-cadherin in the mature and developing organ of Corti of the mouse. J Neurocytol 22:1030–1038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Whitlon DS, Sobkowicz HM (1989) GABA-like immunoreactivity in the cochlea of the developing mouse. J Neurocytol 18:505–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Winther F (1971) The permeability of the guinea pig cochlear capillaries to horseradish peroxidase. Z Zellforsch 114:193–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Woolf NK, Koern FJ, Ryan AF (1992) Immunohistochemical localization of fibronectin-like protein in the inner ear of the developing gerbil and rat. Dev Brain Res 65:21–33.Google Scholar
  301. Wright A (1984) Dimensions of the cochlear stereocilia in man and the guinea pig. Hear Res 13:89–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Xie DH, Henson MM, Bishop AL, Henson OW (1993) Efferent terminals in the cochlea of the mustached bat: quantitative data. Hear Res 66:81–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Yamamoto K, Nakai Y (1964) Electron microscopic studies on the functions of the stria vascularis and the spiral ligament in the inner ear. Ann Otorhinolaryngol 73:332–342.Google Scholar
  304. Ylikoski J, Pirvora U, Narvanen O, Virtanen I (1990) Nonerythroid spectrin (fodrin) is a prominent component of the cochlear hair cells. Hear Res 43: 199–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Yoshihara T, Igarashi M (1987) Cytochemical localization of calcium ATPase activity in the lateral cochlear wall of the guinea pig. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 243: 395–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Zenner HP, Reuter G, Plinkert PK, Zimmermann U, Gitter AH (1989) Outer hair cells possess acetylcholine receptors and produce motile responses in the organ of Corti. In: Wilson JP, Kemp DT (eds) Cochlear Mechanisms. New York: Plenum Publishing Corp., pp. 93–98.Google Scholar
  307. Zwislocki JJ, Slepecky NB, Cefaratti LK, Smith RL (1992) Ionic coupling among cells in the organ of Corti. Hear Res 57: 175–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norma B. Slepecky

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations