Compactifications and BPS States

  • Michio Kaku
Part of the Graduate Texts in Contemporary Physics book series (GTCP)


As remarkable as these dualities may appear, we can still question whether they are accidents of our low-energy expansions or represent something deeper about the theory. We must establish other consistency checks on these nonperturbative results. Perhaps the most persuasive evidence comes from something called “BPS saturated states,” which allow us to probe nonperturbative phenomena because of the nonrenormalization theorems. In this chapter, we will see show these BPS saturated states allow us to establish a web of dualities in dimensions down to D = 4.


Modulus Space Scalar Field Gauge Field Magnetic Charge Heterotic String 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michio Kaku
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsCity College of the City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

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