Cross-Boundary Issues to Manage for Healthy Forest Ecosystems
Since the mid-1980s, the frequency of severe and extensive wildfires, involving millions of hectares, has increased. Beginning with the 1988 fires and the concern about Yellowstone National Park through the 1994 season, in which 34 lives were lost and 1.9 billion ha burned, the extremes in fire activity have become the norm. Then, in 1996, the fires began in the southern United States much earlier then normal and raged unceasingly in the west well into September, covering over 2.5 million ha and costing well over $1 billion. All this activity has made one issue very clear — fires do not respect property lines or political boundaries. These events have brought the issue of forest ecosystem health into a central position in the debate on the use and management of natural resources and the many values society places on these resources. And by the very nature of the issue, the concept of the landscape as organizational unit has gained recognition from the public, the media, and the policy makers.
KeywordsBark Beetle Ecosystem Health Ecosystem Management Forest Health Leafy Spurge
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anonymous. 1995. Sustaining the world's forests: the Santiago agreement. Journal of Forestry 93: 18-21.Google Scholar
- Blew, R.D. 1996. On the definition of ecosystem. Ecological Society of America Bulletin 77: 171–173.Google Scholar
- Byler, J.W., R.G. Krebill, S.K. Hagle, and S.J. Kegley. 1994. Health of the Cedar-Hemlock-Western white pine forests of Idaho. In: Proceedings of the Interior Cedar-Hemlock-White Pine Forests: Ecology and Management, Washington State University, Pullman.Google Scholar
- Campbell, S., and L. Liegel (tech. coords). 1996. Disturbance and Forest Health in Oregon and Washington. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-381. USD A Forest Service, Portand, OR.Google Scholar
- Christensen, N.L., A.M. Bartuska, J.H. Brown, S. Carpenter, C. D'Antonio, R. Francis, J.F. Franklin, J.A. MacMahon, R.F. Noss, D.J. Parsons, C.H. Peterson, M.G. Turner, and R.G. Woodmansee. 1996. The report of the Ecological Society of America Committee on the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem Management. Ecological Applications 6(3): 665–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Costanza, R. 1993. Toward an operational definition of ecosystem health. In: Ecosystem Health, pp. 239–256. R. Costanza, B.G. Norton, and B.D. Haskell (eds.). Island Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Farrar, R.M. (ed.). 1990. Management of Longleaf Pine. Proceedings of a symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. SO-75. USDA Forest Service, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
- Peters. R.L., E. Frost, and F. Pace. 1996. Managing for Forest Ecosystem Health: A Reassessment of the “Forest Health Crisis.” Defenders of Wildlife, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Sampson, R.N., and D.L. Adams (eds.). 1994. Assessing Forest Ecosystem Health in the Inland West. Proceedings of the American Forests workshop. Haworth Press, Binghamton, NY.Google Scholar
- USDA Forest Service. 1996. America's Forests: 1996 Health Update. AIB-727, Wsahington, DC.Google Scholar