Major and Trace Elements in Spruce Needles by NAA
Concentrations of 23 elements in needles of Norway spruce (P. abies) have been determined at 47 sites. It is shown that a thorough removal of the aerosols sitting on the needles surface is necessary in order to get the inherent needle concentrations. Neutron activation was used to determine concentrations from 10−9 to 10−2 g/g. Irradiation and counting conditions are given. The essential elements, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Zn, and the nonessential elements, Al, As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hg, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, and V, could be determined. The concentrations of most elements are about a factor of 6 smaller than the mean concentrations in land plants. Analytical reproducibility was much better than the variation among individual trees, and the variation within sites is smaller than among sites. In general, essential elements have smaller variations than nonessential elements. For some elements, variations between sites are owing to differences in the soil pH or the emission situation.
Index EntriesP. abies, elemental concentrations in needles neutron activation analysis surface contamination on needles, removal variation of concentrations, intra- and intersite distribution functions of concentrations
neutron activation analysis
coefficient of variation
degrees of freedom
least significant difference
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.B. Mason, C. B. Moore, Principles of Geochemistry, Wiley, New York, 1982, p. 258.Google Scholar
- 5.S. Bajo, and A. Wyttenbach, Anal. Chem. 48, 902 (1976).Google Scholar
- 6.S. Bajo and A. Wyttenbach, Extraction liquide-liquide de As, Sb, Se et Te par le diéthyldithiocarbamate de Zn, #EIR 336, Würenlingen, Switzerland, 1978.Google Scholar
- 12.A. Wyttenbach, L. Tobier, S. Bajo, and H. Conradin, in preparation.Google Scholar