Multivariate Statistical Methods and Their Capability to Demarcate Psychophysiologically and Neurophysiologically Sound Frequency Components of Human Scalp EEG

  • Burghard Andresen
Part of the Brain Dynamics book series (BD)


For many fields of applied electroencephalography—especially in psychology, psychiatry, psychophysiology and several neurosciences—defining frequency bands for human spontaneous scalp EEG measurement is a crucial and problematic decision. Modern basic EEG research, as represented by this book, usually directs only limited attention to this issue. Whereas increased interest in time domain, evoked, and topographical EEG phenomena is to be noted, research in the frequency domain has been declining. Today choice of frequency rationales more and more seems to become “a matter of footnotes” (John et al., 1988). In particular, the frequency band issue is usually treated as a marginality. For instance, the Methods volume of the revised Handbook of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology (Gevins and Rémond, 1987) does not offer more than a glimpse of the problem of frequency band methodology for human scalp EEG. Nevertheless, many researchers and practitioners of the disciplines mentioned above rely more and more on uniformly applied frequency band schedules as apparently self-evident rules of data reduction. Although these contrasting trends can be understood in terms of EEG research history and economy, severe objections from the scientific point of view must be brought forward.


Frequency Band Multivariate Statistical Method Band System Harmonic Structure Alpha Wave 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aird RB, Gastaut Y (1959): Occipital and posterior electroencephalographic rhythms. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 11:637–656Google Scholar
  2. Amador AA, Sosa PAV, Marqui RDP, Garcia LG, Lirio RB, Bayard JB (1989): On the structure of EEG development. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 73:10–19Google Scholar
  3. Andresen B (1972): Okzipitales EEG, visuell evoziertes Potential und Alpha-Blockierungs-Reaktion in ihren Beziehungen zu Persönlichkeitsmaßen. Unpublished masters thesis, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  4. Andresen B, Stemmler G (1980): Zur Interpretation topographisch differenzierter Faktorstrukturen von EEG-Frequenzspektren. In: Factor Analysis and EEG Variables, Kubicki S, Herrmann WM, Laudahn G, eds. Stuttgart: G FischerGoogle Scholar
  5. Andresen B, Stemmler G, Thorn E, Irrgang E (1984): Methodological conditions of congruent factors: A comparison of EEG frequency structure between hemispheres. Multivar Behav Res 19:3–32Google Scholar
  6. Andresen B, Thorn E (1987): Generalizability of EEG asymmetries for various experimental conditions. J Psychophysiol 1:300–301Google Scholar
  7. Andresen B, Thorn E, Irrgang E, Stemmler G (1982): An empirically derived 2-systems model of EEG frequency factors. Biol Psychol 15:268–269Google Scholar
  8. Andresen B, Thorn E, Spehr W (1985): A factor analytical study based on an emotion-stress-relaxation experiment. Unpublished study, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  9. Andresen B, Thorn E, Spehr W (1987): Eine empirische Studie zu den experimentellen und methodischen Bedingungen frequenzband-spezifischer EEGAsymmetrien. Unpublished research report, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  10. Banquet JP (1973): Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 35:143–151Google Scholar
  11. Bartussek D (1980): Die dreimodale Faktorenanalyze als Methode zur Bestimmung von EEG-Frequenzspektren. In: Factor Analysis and EEG Variables, Kubicki S, Herrmann WM, Laudahn G, eds. Stuttgart: G FischerGoogle Scholar
  12. Bartussek D, Gräser H (1980): Ergebnisse dreimodaler Faktorenanalysen von EEG-Frequenzspektren. In: Factor Analysis and EEG Variables, Kubicki S, Herrmann WM, Laudahn G, eds. Stuttgart: G FischerGoogle Scholar
  13. Bartussek D, Pawlik K, Rhenius D (1972): Factor analytic study cited in Bartussek and Gräser (1980): Ergebnisse dreimodaler Faktorenanalysen von EEGFrequenzspektren. In: Factor Analysis and EEG Variables, Kubicki S, Herrmann WM, Laudahn G, eds. Stuttgart: G FischerGoogle Scholar
  14. Başar E (1980): EEG-Brain Dynamics. Amsterdam: ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  15. Becker D, Oldenbürger H-A, Schwibbe M (1984): On the replicability of factor structures of EEG frequency spectra. In: Le traitement du signal en électrophysiologie expérimentale et clinique du système nerveux central, tome I, Court L et al., eds. Fontenay-aux-Roses: Commissariat a L’Energie AtomiqueGoogle Scholar
  16. Beier KM, Kubicki S (1987): Kortikale Verteilung zweier Delta-Frequenzen im langsamen Schlaf. Z EEG-EMG 18:47–51Google Scholar
  17. Bente D (1979a): Vigilance and evaluation of psychotropic drug effects on EEG. Pharmakopsychiatrie 12:137–147Google Scholar
  18. Bente D (1979b): Die faktorenanalytische Verarbeitung spektraler EEG-Daten: Auswertungsstrategien und pharmakoelektroenzephalographische Anwendungsbeispiele. Z EEG-EMG 10:207–213Google Scholar
  19. Bente D, Glatthaar G, Ulrich G, Lewinsky M (1978): Piracetam und Vigilanz: Elektroenzephalographische und klinische Ergebnisse einer Langzeitmedikation bei gerontopsychiatrischen Patienten. Arznei-mittel-Forschung (Drug Research) 28:1529–1530Google Scholar
  20. Berger H (1929): Über das Elektrenkephalogramm des Menschen. Arch Psychiat Nervenheilk 87:527–570Google Scholar
  21. Brazier MAB, Cobb WA, Fischgold H, Gastaut H, Gloor P, Hess R, Jasper H, Loeb C, Magnus O, Pampiglione G, Rémond A, Storm van Leeuwen W, Walter WG (1961): Preliminary proposal for an EEG terminology by the terminology committee of the international federation for electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 13:646–650Google Scholar
  22. Brazier MAB, Finesinger JE (1945): Action of barbiturates on the cerebral cortex. Arch Neurol Psychiat 53:51–58Google Scholar
  23. Cattell RB (1952): The three basic factor-analytic research designs—their interrelations and derivatives. Psychol Bull 49:499–520Google Scholar
  24. Chatrian GE, Bickford RG, Uihlein A (1960): Depth electrographic study of a fast rhythm evoked from the human calcarine region by steady illumination. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 12:167–176Google Scholar
  25. Coppola R, Herrmann WM (1987): Psychotropic drug profiles: Comparisons by topographic maps of absolute power. Pharmacoelectroencephalography 18:97–104Google Scholar
  26. Craggs MD, Wright JJ, Werry JS (1980): A pilot study of the effects of methylphenidate on the vigilance-related EEG in hyperactivity. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 48:34–42Google Scholar
  27. Crighel E (1964): The “halving” of EEG spontaneous rhythms. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 17:588–602Google Scholar
  28. Defayolle M, Dinand JP (1974): Application de l’analyze a l’étude de 1a structure de L’EEG. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 36:319–322Google Scholar
  29. DeFrance J, Sheer DE (1988): Focused arousal, 40-Hz EEG, and motor programming. In: The EEG of Mental Activities, Giannitrapani M, ed. Basel: KargerGoogle Scholar
  30. Dittmann RW (1988): Zur Psychophysiologie beim Autogenen Training von Kindern und Jugendlichen. Frankfurt/M: P LangGoogle Scholar
  31. Dolce G, Waldeier H (1974): spectral and multivariate analysis of EEG changes during mental activity in man. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 36:577–584Google Scholar
  32. Douglas RR, Rogers LJ (1983): Comparative factor analysis models for an empirical study of EEG data. Int J Neurosc 18:211–226Google Scholar
  33. Dubrovinskaya NV (1980): Electrophysiological characteristics of attention as an index of functional maturation of the brain in children. In: EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology Lechner H, Aranibar A, eds. Amsterdam: Excerpta MedicaGoogle Scholar
  34. Dymond AM, Coger RW, Serafetinides EA (1978): Preprocessing by factor analysis of centro-occipital EEG power and asymmetry from three subject groups. Ann Biomed Eng 6:108–116Google Scholar
  35. Elmgren J, Löwenhard P (1969): A factor analysis of the human EEG. Reports from the Psychological Laboratory University of Göteborg 2:1–15Google Scholar
  36. Fichte K, Herrmann WM, Kubicki S (1979): Mathematische Rationale für die klinischen EEG-Frequenzbänder. 3. Faktorstruktur unter Psychopharmakabehandlung. Z EEG-EMG 10:31–37Google Scholar
  37. Fink M, Shapiro DM, Itil TM (1971): EEG profiles of fenfluramine, amorbarbital and dextroamphetamine in normal volunteers. Psychopharmacologia 22:369–383Google Scholar
  38. Gaarder K, Speck LB (1967): The quasiharmonic relations of alpha and beta peaks in the power spectrum. Brain Res 4:110–112Google Scholar
  39. Gastaut H, Gastaut Y, Roger A, Corriol J, Naquet R (1951): Étude électrographique du cycle d’exitabilité cortical. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 3:401–428Google Scholar
  40. Gevins AS (1987): Overview of computer analysis. In: Methods of Analysis of Brain Electrical and Magnetic Signals, Gevins AS, Rémond A, eds. Amsterdam: ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  41. Gevins AS, Rémond A (1987): Methods of Analysis of Brain Electrical and Magnetic Signals—Handbook of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophvsiology, revised series, Vol 1. Amsterdam: ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  42. Gibbs FA, Gibbs EL (1950): Atlas of Electroencephalography, Vol 1. Methodology and Controls, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Addison-Wesley PressGoogle Scholar
  43. Gräser H, Bartussek D (1975): Zur faktorenanalytischen Klassifikation von EEGFrequenzbändern. In: Bericht über den 29. Kongreβ der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie, Bd. 1, Tack WH, ed. Göttingen: HogrefeGoogle Scholar
  44. Hashimoto M, Mukasa H, Yamada S, Nakamura J, Inanaga K (1988): Frontal midline theta activity and platelet MAO in human subjects. Biol Psychiat 23:31–43Google Scholar
  45. Hayashi H, Iijima S, Sugita Y, Teshima Y, Tashiro T, Matsuo R, Yasoshima A, Hishikawa Y, Ishihara T (1987): Appearance of frontal mid-line theta rhythm during sleep and its relation to mental activity. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 66:66–70Google Scholar
  46. Hebert R, Lehmann D (1977): Theta bursts: An EEG pattern in normal subjects practising the transcendental meditation technique. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 42:397–405Google Scholar
  47. Herrmann WM, Fichte K, Kubicki S (1978a): Mathematische Rationale für die klinischen EEG-Frequenzbänder. 1. Faktorenanalyze mit EEG-Powerspektralschätzungen zur Definition von Frequenzbändern. Z EEG-EMG 9:146–154Google Scholar
  48. Herrmann WM, Fichte K, Kubicki S (1978b): Mathematische Rationale fur die klinischen EEG-Frequenzbänder 2. Stabilität der Faktorenstruktur bei zwei Länderstichproben und Meßwiederholungen unter Placebo. Z EEG-EMG 9:200–205Google Scholar
  49. Herrmann WM, Fichte K, Kubicki S (1980): Definition von EEG-Frequenzbändern aufgrund strukturanalytischer Betrachtungen. In: Factor Analysis and EEG Variables, Kubicki S, Herrmann WM, Laudahn G, eds. Stuttgart: G FischerGoogle Scholar
  50. Herrmann WM, Kubicki S (1981): Beispiele fur die Projektion von Substanzwirkungen ypischer Psychopharmaka auf eine elektrophysiologische Meßebene. Z EEG-EMG 12:21–32Google Scholar
  51. Herrmann WM, Kubicki S, Künkel H, Kugler J, Maurer K, Rappelsberger P, Scheuler W (1989): Empfehlungen der Deutschen EEG-Gesellschaft für das Mapping von EEG-Parametern (EEG-und EP-Mapping). Z EEG-EMG 20:125–132Google Scholar
  52. Herrmann WM, McDonald RJ (1978): A multidimensional test approach for the description of the CNS activity of drugs in human pharmacology. Pharmakopsychiatrie 13:247–265Google Scholar
  53. Herrmann WM, Röhmel J, Streitberg B, Willmann J (1983): Example for applying the COMSTAT multimodal factor analysis algorithm to EEG data to describe variance sources. Neuropsychobiology 10: 164–172Google Scholar
  54. Hill D (1963): The E.E.G. in psychiatry. In: Electroencephalography, Hill D, Parr G, eds. London: McDonaldGoogle Scholar
  55. Hinrichs H, Ferber G, Künkel H (1980): Grenzen der starren Frequenzbandeinteilung und Alternativen. In: Factor Analysis and EEG Variables, Kubicki S, Herrmann WM, Laudahn G, eds. Stuttgart: G FischerGoogle Scholar
  56. Inouye T, Ishihara T, Shinosaki K, Toi S, Ukai S (1988): EEG characteristics of frontal midline theta activity. In: The EEG of Mental Activities, Giannitrapani M, ed. Basel: KargerGoogle Scholar
  57. Ishihara T, Yoshii N (1972): Multivariate analytic study of EEG and mental activity in juvenile delinquents. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 33:71–80Google Scholar
  58. Jasper H (1958): The ten twenty electrode system of the international federation. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 10:371–375Google Scholar
  59. John ER (1977): Functional Neuroscience, Vol II. Neurometrics: Clinical Applications of Quantitative Electrophysiology. Hillsdale: Lawrence ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  60. John ER, Prichep LS, Fridman J, Easton P (1988): Neurometrics: Computerassisted differential diagnosis of brain dysfunctions. Science 239:162–169Google Scholar
  61. Katada A, Ozaki H, Suzuki H, Suhara K (1981): Developmental characteristics of normal and mentally retarded children’s EEGs. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 52:192–201Google Scholar
  62. Kempe P, Closs C, Andresen B, Thorn E (1974): Einige Probleme der Biofeedbackforschung. Mediz Psychol 1: 6–20Google Scholar
  63. Ketz E (1974): Wirkung von Antikonvulsiva und psychotropen Drogen auf das EEG. Z EEG-EMG 5:99–106Google Scholar
  64. Koukkou M, Lehmann D (1976): Human EEG spectra before and during cannabis hallucinations. Biol Psychiat 11:663–677Google Scholar
  65. Kubicki S (1980): Zur Entwicklung und Begründung der klinischen EEG-Frequenzbänder. In: Factor Analysis and EEG Variables, Kubicki S, Herrmann WM, Laudahn G, eds. Stuttgart: G FischerGoogle Scholar
  66. Kubicki S, Herrmann WM, Laudahn G, eds. (1980): Faktorenanalyze und Variablenbildung aus dem Elektroenzephalogramm/Factor Analysis and EEG Variables. Stuttgart: G FischerGoogle Scholar
  67. Künkel H (1980): Elektroenzephalographie und Psychiatric In: Psychiatrie der Gegenwart, Bd. I, 2nd Ed., Grundlagen und Methoden der Psychiatrie, Teil 2. Kisker KP, Meyer JE, Müller C, Strömgren E, eds. Berlin: SpringerGoogle Scholar
  68. Larsen LE (1969): An analysis of the intercorrelations among spectral amplitudes in the EEG: A generator study. IEEE Transactions on Bio-Medical Engineering, BME-16, 1:23–26Google Scholar
  69. Lindsey DB (1939): A longitudinal study of the occipital alpha rhythm in normal children: Frequency and amplitude standards. J Genet Psychol 55:197–213Google Scholar
  70. Lipman IJ, Hughes JR (1969): Rhythmic mid-temporal discharges. An electroclinical study. EEG Clin. Neurophysiol 27:43–47Google Scholar
  71. Löwenhard P (1973): P factor analysis of single EEG recordings. Göteborg Psychol Rep 3:1–14Google Scholar
  72. Lopes da Silva F (1987): Computer-assisted EEG diagnosis: pattern recognition techniques. In: Electroencephalography, Niedermeyer E, Lopes da Silva F, eds. Baltimore: Urban & SchwarzenbergGoogle Scholar
  73. Lorig TS, Schwartz GE (1989): Factor analysis of the EEG indicates inconsistencies in traditional frequency bands. J Psychophysiol 3:369–375Google Scholar
  74. Lykken DT (1975): The role of individual differences in psychophysiological research. In: Research in Psychophysiology, Venables PH, Christie MJ, eds. Toronto: WileyGoogle Scholar
  75. Magnus O, Ponsen L (1980): The relation of certain EEG phenomena with age and sex. In: EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology, Lechner H, Aranibar A, eds. Amsterdam: ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  76. Matoušek M, Petersen J (1973): Frequency analysis of the EEG in normal children and adolescents. In: Automatization of Clinical Electroencephalography, Kellaway P, Petersen, eds. New York: Raven PressGoogle Scholar
  77. Mimura K, Sato K, Ozaki T, Honda N, Masuya S (1962): On the physiological significance of the EEG changes caused by sonic stimulation. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 14:683–696Google Scholar
  78. Mizuki Y, Tanaka M, Isozaki H, Inanaga K (1976): Fm Theta and personality. Jpn J EEG and EMG 4:182–191Google Scholar
  79. Mulholland T, Runnals S (1962): Increased occurrence of EEG alpha during increased attention. J Psychol 54:317–330Google Scholar
  80. Mundy-Castle AC (1955): The electroencephalogram in relation to temperament. Acta Psychologica 11:397–411Google Scholar
  81. Niedermeyer E (1990): Alpha-independent rhythmical activity of the temporal lobe. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 76:22pGoogle Scholar
  82. Oldenbürger HA, Becker D (1976): Are there clusters of frequencies in power spectra of EEG? How to find and prove them statistically. In: Quantitative Analysis of the EEG, Metejcek M, Schenk GK, eds. Konstanz: AEG TelefunkenGoogle Scholar
  83. Oldenbürger HA, Schwibbe M (1980): Konstruktive Kritik des Einsatzes dimensionaler Dekompensationsverfahren für EEG-Frequenzkomponenten. In: Factor Analysis and EEG Variables, Kubicki S, Herrmann WM, Laudahn G, eds. Stuttgart: G FischerGoogle Scholar
  84. Ozaki H, Suzuki H (1987): Transverse relationships of the alpha rhythm on the scalp. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 66:191–195Google Scholar
  85. Penuel H, Corbin F, Bickford MB, Bickford RG (1955): Studies of the electroencephalogram of normal children: Comparison of visual and automatic frequency analyzes. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 7:15–28Google Scholar
  86. Perez-Borja C, Tyce FA, McDonald C, Vihlein A (1961): Depth electrographic studies of a focal fast responsetto sensory stimulation in the human. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 13:695–702Google Scholar
  87. Petsche H, Pockberger H, Rappelsberger P (1985): Musikrezeption, EEG und musikalische Vorbildung. Z EEG-EMG 16:183–190Google Scholar
  88. Pfurtscheller G (1981): Central beta rhythm during sensorimotor activities in man. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 51:253–264Google Scholar
  89. Pitot JN, Gastaut Y (1956): Aspects EEGraphiques inhabituels des séquelles des traumatismes crâniens: II Les rhythmes post’erieurs à 4 cycles-seconde. Rev Neurol 94:189–191Google Scholar
  90. Röske W (1981): Untersuchung zum Ursprungs höherfrequenter Potentiale an der Kopfhaut. Z EEG-EMG 12:161–167Google Scholar
  91. Rösier F (1975): Die Abhängigkeit des Elektroenzephalogramms von den Persönlichkeitsdimensionen E und N sensu Eysenck und unterschiedlich aktivierenden Situationen. Z Exp Angew Psychol 22:630–667Google Scholar
  92. Royce JR (1973): Multivariate Analysis and Psychological Theory. London: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  93. Saletu B (1976): Psychopharmaka, Gehirntätigkeit und Schlaf. Basel: KargerGoogle Scholar
  94. Scharein E, Häger F, Bromm B (1984): Spectral estimators for short EEG segments. In: Pain Measurement in Man. Neurophysiological Correlates of Pain. Bromm B, ed. Amsterdam: ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  95. Schwibbe M, Becker D (1980): Intersituativer und interindividueller Vergleich von Faktorstrukturen power-spektralanalysierter EEG. In: Factor Analysis and EEG Variables, Kubicki S, Herrmann WM, Laudahn G, eds. Stuttgart: G FischerGoogle Scholar
  96. Sheer DE (1975): Biofeedback training of 40-Hz-EEG and behavior. In: Behavior and Brain Electrical Activity, Burch N, Altschuler HL, eds. New York: Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  97. Simonov PV (1968): Basic (alpha) EEG rhythm as electrographic manifestation of preventive inhibition of brain structure. In: Brain Reflexes, Asratyan EA, Amsterdam: ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  98. Skarbrough FW (1987): Nonspecific abnormal EEG patterns. In: Electroencephalography, 2nd ed., Niedermeyer E, Lopes da Silva F, eds. Baltimore: Urban & SchwarzenbergGoogle Scholar
  99. Slatter KH (1960): Alpha rhythms and mental imagery. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 12:851–859Google Scholar
  100. Spehr W, Andresen B, Stemmler G, Thorn E (1990): Computerized EEG in chronic alcoholism: Influence of withdrawal and clinical history. (Submitted for publication)Google Scholar
  101. Spehr W, Sartorius H, Berglund K, Hjorth B, Kablitz C, Plog V, Wiedemann PH, Zapf X (1977): EEG and haemodialysis. A structural survey of EEG spectral analysis, Hjorth’s EEG descriptors, blood variables and psychological data. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 43:787–797Google Scholar
  102. Stemmler G, Meinhardt E (1990): Personality, situation and physiological arousability. Person Individ Diff 11:293–308Google Scholar
  103. Sterman MB, Macdonald LR, Stone RK (1974): Biofeedback training of the sensorimotor electroencephalogram rhythm in man: Effects on epilepsy. Epilepsia 15:395–416Google Scholar
  104. Storm van Leeuwen W, Bekkering DH (1958): Some results obtained with the EEG-spectrograph. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 10: 563–570Google Scholar
  105. Thorn E, Andresen B (1984): Correction of EOG artifacts: Effects on the EEG power spectrum. In: Pain Measurement in Man. Neurophysiological Correlates of Pain, Bromm B, ed. Amsterdam: ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  106. Tsuji Y, Kobayashi T (1988): Short and long ultradian EEG components in daytime arousal. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 70:110–117Google Scholar
  107. Van Duiden M, Magnus O (1963): Occipital fast activity. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 15:343–344Google Scholar
  108. Van Huffelen AC, Magnus O (1973): 4 c/sec vertex spindles. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 34:543–546Google Scholar
  109. Vogel F (1962): Untersuchungen zur Genetik der Beta-Wellen im EEG des Menschen. Dtsch Z Nervenheilk184:137–173Google Scholar
  110. Vogel F (1966): Zur genetischen Grundlage okzipitaler langsamer Beta-Wellen im EEG des Menschen. Humangenetik 2:238–245Google Scholar
  111. Vogel W, Brovermann DM, Klaiber EL (1968): EEG and mental abilities. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 24:166–175Google Scholar
  112. Walter G (1950): The Living Brain. London: DuckworthGoogle Scholar
  113. Wieneke G (1987): Factors found using factor analysis of EEG power spectra. Cited as a personal communication in Lopes da Silva F, Computer-assisted EEG diagnosis: Pattern recognition techniques. In: Electroencephalography, Niedermeyer E, Lopes da Silva F, eds. Baltimore: Urban & SchwarzenbergGoogle Scholar
  114. Wieneke GH, Deinema CHA, Spoelstra P, Storm van Leeuwen W, Versteeg H (1980): Normative spectral data on alpha rhythm in male adults. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 49:636–645Google Scholar
  115. Wilhelm H, Becker D (1975): EEG-Veränderungen bei subliminaler Darbietung emotionell unterschiedlich wirksamer Wörter. In: Bericht über den 29. Kongreβ der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie, Bd. 1, Tack WH, ed. Göttingen: HogrefeGoogle Scholar
  116. Zeller G, Bente D (1983): Veränderungen der hirnelektrischen Organisation bei visuellen Such-und Diskriminationsprozessen unterschiedlichen Schwierigkeitsgrades. Z EEG-EMG 14:177–185Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Burghard Andresen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations