Cutaneous Larva Migrans

  • Stefano Veraldi
  • Ermira Çuka
  • Fabrizio Vaira


Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is an infestation caused by penetration and migration in the epidermis of larvae of nematodes. Ancylostoma braziliense and Ancylostoma caninum are the species most frequently involved. CLM is characterized by slightly raised and erythematous tracks, very often accompanied by pruritus. CLM can sometimes heal spontaneously; on the other hand, a clinical variety characterized by a very long clinical course has been described. Most used therapies are cryotherapy, topical thiabendazole and oral albendazole and ivermectin.


Albendazole Ancylostoma sp. Cryotherapy Cutaneous larva migrans Ivermectin Thiabendazole 


  1. 1.
    Davies HD, Sakuls P, Keystone JS. Creeping eruption. A review of clinical presentation and management of 60 cases presenting to a tropical disease unit. Arch Dermatol. 1993;129:588–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jelinek T, Maiwald H, Nothdurft HD, Löscher T. Cutaneous larva migrans in travelers: synopsis of histories, symptoms, and treatment of 98 patients. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;19:1062–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Veraldi S, Parducci BA, Pontini P. Therapy of cutaneous larva migrans in pregnancy. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2016 (in press).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Veraldi S, Persico MC, Francia C, Schianchi R. Chronic hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e277–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tagliapietra G, Cavalieri F, Bruni L. Su due casi di dermatite da larva migrans guariti con crioterapia (neve carbonica). Chron Derm. 1987;18:237–40.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Katz R, Hood RW. The use of topical thiabendazole in dimethylsulfoxide for creeping eruption: preliminary report. J Invest Dermatol. 1966;46:309–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sugathan P. Massive infestation of cutaneous larva migrans. Dermatol Online J. 2002;8:21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stone OJ, Mullins JF, Willis CJ. Inhibition of nematode development with thiabendazole. J Invest Dermatol. 1964;43:437.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Coulaud JP, Binet D, Voyer C, Samson C, Moreau G, Rossignol JF. Traitement du syndrome de larva migrans cutanée “larbish” par l’albendazole. A propos de 18 observations. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1982;75:534–7.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Caumes E, Datry A, Paris L, Danis M, Gentilini M, Gaxotte P. Efficacy of ivermectin in the therapy of cutaneous larva migrans. Arch Dermatol. 1992;128:994–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fuller CE. A common source outbreak of cutaneous larva migrans. Public Health Rep. 1966;81:186–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Loewenthal LJ. Treatment of sandworm disease with hetrazan. S Afr Med J. 1950;24:999–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wilson JF. The treatment of larva migrans with stibanose. South Med J. 1952;45:127–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burks Jr JW, Kingery FAJ. Treatment of creeping eruption with chloroquine diphosphate: a preliminary report. South Med J. 1956;49:1290–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huber HP. Epidemieartiges Auftreten von creeping disease. Dermatologica. 1972;145:88–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jacquemin JL. Résistance au thiabendazole et efficacité du fluoromebendazole. Nouv Press Med. 1980;9:1779.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hart PLV. Mebendazole and cutaneous larva migrans. N Z Med J. 1990;103:408.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ogata A, Ando H, Kubo Y, Hiraga K. Teratogenicity of thiabendazole in ICR mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 1984;22:509–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Teruel M, D’Ercole J, Catalano R. Evaluation of potential embryo toxicity of albendazole sulphoxide in CF1 mice. Biocell. 2011;35:29–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    el-Ashmawy IM, el-Nahas AF, Bayad AE. Teratogenic and cytogenetic effects of ivermectin and its interaction with P-glycoprotein inhibitor. Res Vet Sci. 2011;90:116–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Caumes E. Treatment of cutaneous larva migrans. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;30:811–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathophysiology and TransplantationUniversita’ Degli Studi di Milano, IRCCS FOUNDATION, Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore PoliclinicoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Dermatology Unit, Department of Medical, Surgical Diagnostic and Pediatric ScienceUniversity of Pavia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San MatteoPaviaItaly

Personalised recommendations