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Hyperkeratosis of the Nipple and Areola

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Dermatological Cryosurgery and Cryotherapy

Abstract

Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and/or areola (HNA) is a rare and benign condition characterized by excessive keratinatation of the nipple and/or areola. The lesions are hyperpigmented, verrucous or filiform, with keratotic thickening and papillomatosis. HNA can be idiopathic or associated with conditions, such as acanthosis nigricans, epidermal nevus, pregnancy and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Cryotherapy has been shown to successfully treat HNA with a favorable cosmetic result.

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Correspondence to Robert A. Schwartz MD, MPH, DSc (Hon), FRCP (Edin) .

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Ring, C.M., Schwartz, R.A. (2016). Hyperkeratosis of the Nipple and Areola. In: Abramovits, W., Graham, G., Har-Shai, Y., Strumia, R. (eds) Dermatological Cryosurgery and Cryotherapy. Springer, London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-6765-5_83

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-6765-5_83

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  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4471-6765-5

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