Pregnancy, Puerperium and Pelvic Organ Prolapse

  • Jittima Manonai


Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common condition that develops secondary to multiple factors. POP is associated with affected quality of life, loss of productivity, and increased financial burden on the healthcare system. Many studies in literature show that pregnancy and childbirth negatively affect pelvic floor structure and function. Vaginal delivery clearly has an influence on subsequent POP, especially the first childbirth that is critical for the major change of the pelvic floor. Obstetric pelvic floor trauma (levator ani muscle injury) has been linked to the pathogenesis of POP and this condition can be demonstrated using magnetic resonance imaging, 3/4D transperineal ultrasound and 3D endovaginal ultrasound. Pelvic organ prolapse in pregnancy may cause maternal and fetal complications. The reported prevalence of POP after childbirth is 15–48 %. Previous studies define vaginal delivery, usage of forceps and length of the second stage of labour as risk factors for postpartum POP.


Pelvic organ prolapse Pregnancy Childbirth Puerperium Levator ani muscle injury 


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© Springer-Verlag London 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi HospitalMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand

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