Introduction to Part II
This chapter introduces Part II (Chaps. 9– 11), which covers the biological background complementing the mathematical background given in Part I (Chaps. 2– 8). This introductory chapter is mainly devoted to concepts. Relevant terms such as genotype, phenotype and species are defined. Concepts especially important in biology such as adaptation, regulation and modularity are introduced. Evolution is seen as phylogenetic adaptation, and adaptation itself is but a special case of directive correlation. Complexity is revisited in the guise of biological complexity.
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