Principles Specific to Cardiac Computed Tomographic (CT) Angiography
This chapter is a detailed review of the principles specific to cardiac CT angiography (CCTA) which is a highly specialized form of CT in general. The reader is thoroughly introduced to important concepts in data acquisition and the particulars important to acquiring useful information that will be used to create the CCTA image, which include patient selection and preparation, CCTA protocols and scan timing, radiation sparing techniques and contrast and contrast injection principles. Data reconstruction is reviewed in detail, including phase selection, reconstruction filters and electrocardiogram editing. Additionally, image display formats are detailed including volume rendered techniques, maximum intensity projections, multiplanar reformats and curved multiplanar reformats. By the end of this chapter, the reader will be proficient in CCTA data acquisition, reconstruction and image display.
KeywordsData acquisition Data reconstruction Image display Data acquisition system DAS Patient selection Imaging the morbidly obese Iodine flux Signal to noise ratio Contrast administration rate Coronary calcification Blooming effect Partial volume averaging ECG editing Bypass grafts Coronary stents Patient preparation B blocker Beta blocker Metformin Contrast dye allergy IV Intravenous Electrocardiogram lead placement Nitroglycerin Sublingual nitroglycerin CCTA protocols Scan timing Triggering scan mode Prospective imaging Retrospective imaging Radiation sparing protocols Tube potential Tube current X ray flux ECG triggering Dose modulation ECG based dose modulation Anatomy based tube current adaptation Radiation dose Pitch Scan protocol Acquisition field of view aFOV Noise-reducing reconstruction algorithms Iterative reconstruction Scan timing Test bolus Bolus tracking Scan field Scan field direction Contrast Contrast injection techniques Phase selection Padding Multiphasic analysis Reconstruction filters Convolution filter Kernal Hounsfield Unit H.U Partial scan Multisegmental reconstruction Triggering Atrial fibrillation Image display Computer workstation Volume rendered technique VRT Multiplanar reformat MPR Maximum intensity projection MIP Curved multiplanar reformat cMPR Curved maximum intensity projection cMIP Single plane multiplanar reconstruction
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