Advertisement

Air Pollution and Asthma

  • David B. PedenEmail author
Part of the Molecular and Integrative Toxicology book series (MOLECUL)

Abstract

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease most commonly associated with an eosinophilic (TH2-type) inflammation. Airway pathophysiology of asthma is characterized by intermittent airway bronchoconstriction and mucus hypersecretion with decreased airflow, cough, wheeze and breathlessness. These events are linked to airway hyperresponsiveness, in which airway response to environmental stressors is increased. Environmental exposures are an important factor in asthma genesis. Allergic processes play a defining role in atopic asthma, with allergen exposures linked to disease development. Occupational exposures and chronic exposure to ambient air pollutants and tobacco smoke have been linked to asthma. A common cause of asthma exacerbation is acute exposure to environmental pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, wood smoke, tobacco smoke, and bioaerosols. Pollutant exposure also increased responsiveness to viral infection inhaled allergen. Features that characterize most air pollutants that play a role in asthma are the ability to induce an innate immune response and association with increased oxidative stress. Biological factors and interventions that modulate innate immunity and oxidative stress impact environmental asthma as well. This chapter will outline the effects of a number of pollutants in asthmatics, as well as potential interventions to mitigate the impact of pollutants on asthmatics.

Keywords

Pollutants Innate immunity Oxidative stress Atopy Airway hyper-responsiveness 

References

  1. Accordini S, Janson C, Svanes C, Jarvis D (2012) The role of smoking in allergy and asthma: lessons from the ECRHS. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 12(3):185–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams WC (2006) Comparison of chamber 6.6-h exposures to 0.04-0.08 PPM ozone via square-wave and triangular profiles on pulmonary responses. Inhal Toxicol 18(2):127–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal S (2012) Effect of indoor air pollution from biomass and solid fuel combustion on prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India: findings from a nationwide large-scale cross-sectional survey. J Asthma 49(4):355–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexis N, Urch B, Tarlo S, Corey P, Pengelly D, O’Byrne P et al (2000) Cyclooxygenase metabolites play a different role in ozone-induced pulmonary function decline in asthmatics compared to normals. Inhal Toxicol 12(12):1205–1224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexis NE, Becker S, Bromberg PA, Devlin R, Peden DB (2004) Circulating CD11b expression correlates with the neutrophil response and airway mCD14 expression is enhanced following ozone exposure in humans. Clin Immunol 111(1):126–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alexis NE, Lay JC, Haczhu A, Gong H, Linn W, Hazucha M et al (2008) Fluticasone propionate protects against ozone-induced airways inflammation and modified immune cell activation markers in normal volunteers. Environ Health Perspect 116(6):799–805PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Alexis NE, Zhou H, Lay JC, Harris B, Hernandez ML, Lu TS et al (2009) The glutathione-S-transferase Mu 1 null genotype modulates ozone-induced airway inflammation in human subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol 29Google Scholar
  8. Alexis NE, Lay JC, Hazucha M, Harris B, Hernandez ML, Bromberg PA et al (2010) Low-level ozone exposure induces airways inflammation and modifies cell surface phenotypes in healthy humans. Inhal Toxicol 22(7):593–600PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Alexis NE, Lay JC, Zhou H, Kim CS, Hernandez ML, Kehrl H et al (2013) The glutathione-S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) null genotype and increased neutrophil response to low-level ozone (0.06 ppm). J Allergy Clin Immunol 131(2):610–612PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Anderson GP (2008) Endotyping asthma: new insights into key pathogenic mechanisms in a complex, heterogeneous disease. Lancet 372(9643):1107–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Anto JM (2012) Recent advances in the epidemiologic investigation of risk factors for asthma: a review of the 2011 literature. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 12(3):192–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Auerbach A, Hernandez ML (2012) The effect of environmental oxidative stress on airway inflammation. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 12(2):133–139PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Balmes JR (1993) The role of ozone exposure in the epidemiology of asthma. Environ Health Perspect 101(Suppl 4):219–224PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Barnes PJ (1994) Air pollution and asthma. Postgrad Med J 70(823):319–325PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Barnes PJ (1995) Air pollution and asthma: molecular mechanisms. Mol Med Today 1(3):149–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Barregard L, Sallsten G, Gustafson P, Andersson L, Johansson L, Basu S et al (2006) Experimental exposure to wood-smoke particles in healthy humans: effects on markers of inflammation, coagulation, and lipid peroxidation. Inhal Toxicol 18(11):845–853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Barregard L, Sallsten G, Andersson L, Almstrand AC, Gustafson P, Andersson M et al (2008) Experimental exposure to wood smoke: effects on airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Occup Environ Med 65(5):319–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bascom R, Naclerio RM, Fitzgerald TK, Kagey-Sobotka A, Proud D (1990) Effect of ozone inhalation on the response to nasal challenge with antigen of allergic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 142(3):594–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Basha MA, Gross KB, Gwizdala CJ, Haidar AH, Popovich J Jr (1994) Bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia in asthmatic and healthy volunteers after controlled exposure to ozone and filtered purified air. Chest 106(6):1757–1765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Behndig AF, Mudway IS, Brown JL, Stenfors N, Helleday R, Duggan ST et al (2006) Airway antioxidant and inflammatory responses to diesel exhaust exposure in healthy humans. Eur Respir J 27(2):359–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Belgrave DC, Custovic A, Simpson A (2013) Characterizing wheeze phenotypes to identify endotypes of childhood asthma, and the implications for future management. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 9(10):921–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bennett WD, Hazucha MJ, Folinsbee LJ, Bromberg PA, Kissling GE, London SJ (2007) Acute pulmonary function response to ozone in young adults as a function of body mass index. Inhal Toxicol 19(14):1147–1154PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bernstein DI (2011) Genetics of occupational asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 11(2):86–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bernstein JA, Alexis N, Barnes C, Bernstein IL, Bernstein JA, Nel A et al (2004) Health effects of air pollution. J Allergy Clin Immunol 114(5):1116–1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Boehlecke B, Hazucha M, Alexis NE, Jacobs R, Reist P, Bromberg PA et al (2003) Low-dose airborne endotoxin exposure enhances bronchial responsiveness to inhaled allergen in atopic asthmatics. J Allergy Clin Immunol 112(6):1241–1243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Breysse PN, Buckley TJ, Williams D, Beck CM, Jo SJ, Merriman B et al (2005) Indoor exposures to air pollutants and allergens in the homes of asthmatic children in inner-city Baltimore. Environ Res 98(2):167–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brims F, Chauhan AJ (2005) Air quality, tobacco smoke, urban crowding and day care: modern menaces and their effects on health. Pediatr Infect Dis J 24(11 Suppl):S152–S156, discussionPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bromberg PA, Koren HS (1995) Ozone-induced human respiratory dysfunction and disease. Toxicol Lett 82–83:307–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bruce N, Perez-Padilla R, Albalak R (2000) Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge. Bull World Health Organ 78(9):1078–1092PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Burke H, Leonardi-Bee J, Hashim A, Pine-Abata H, Chen Y, Cook DG et al (2012) Prenatal and passive smoke exposure and incidence of asthma and wheeze: systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics 129(4):735–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Busse WW, Lemanske RF Jr (2001) Asthma. N Engl J Med 344(5):350–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Busse WW, Rosenwasser LJ (2003) Mechanisms of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111(3 Suppl):S799–S804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cartier A, Sastre J (2011) Clinical assessment of occupational asthma and its differential diagnosis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 31(4):717–728, viPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Carty CL, Gehring U, Cyrys J, Bischof W, Heinrich J (2003) Seasonal variability of endotoxin in ambient fine particulate matter. J Environ Monit 5(6):953–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Chen LL, Tager IB, Peden DB, Christian DL, Ferrando RE, Welch BS et al (2004) Effect of ozone exposure on airway responses to inhaled allergen in asthmatic subjects. Chest 125(6):2328–2335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Christiani DC, Mehta AJ, Yu CL (2008) Genetic susceptibility to occupational exposures. Occup Environ Med 65(6):430–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ciencewicki J, Brighton L, Wu WD, Madden M, Jaspers I (2006) Diesel exhaust enhances virus- and poly(I:C)-induced Toll-like receptor 3 expression and signaling in respiratory epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 290(6):L1154–L1163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Clapp WD, Thorne PS, Frees KL, Zhang X, Lux CR, Schwartz DA (1993) The effects of inhalation of grain dust extract and endotoxin on upper and lower airways. Chest 104(3):825–830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Crain EF, Walter M, O’Connor GT, Mitchell H, Gruchalla RS, Kattan M et al (2002) Home and allergic characteristics of children with asthma in seven U.S. urban communities and design of an environmental intervention: the Inner-City Asthma Study. Environ Health Perspect 110(9):939–945PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Custovic A, Lazic N, Simpson A (2013) Pediatric asthma and development of atopy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 13(2):173–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. D’Amato G, Liccardi G, D’Amato M, Holgate S (2005) Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 35(9):1113–1124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. David GL, Koh WP, Lee HP, Yu MC, London SJ (2005) Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and chronic respiratory symptoms in non-smoking adults: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Thorax 60(12):1052–1058PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Delfino RJ, Gong H Jr, Linn WS, Pellizzari ED, Hu Y (2003) Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants. Environ Health Perspect 111(4):647–656PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Diaz-Sanchez D, Dotson AR, Takenaka H, Saxon A (1994) Diesel exhaust particles induce local IgE production in vivo and alter the pattern of IgE messenger RNA isoforms. J Clin Invest 94(4):1417–1425PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Diaz-Sanchez D, Tsien A, Casillas A, Dotson AR, Saxon A (1996) Enhanced nasal cytokine production in human beings after in vivo challenge with diesel exhaust particles. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98(1):114–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Diaz-Sanchez D, Tsien A, Fleming J, Saxon A (1997) Combined diesel exhaust particulate and ragweed allergen challenge markedly enhances human in vivo nasal ragweed-specific IgE and skews cytokine production to a T helper cell 2-type pattern. J Immunol 158(5):2406–2413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Diaz-Sanchez D, Garcia MP, Wang M, Jyrala M, Saxon A (1999) Nasal challenge with diesel exhaust particles can induce sensitization to a neoallergen in the human mucosa. J Allergy Clin Immunol 104(6):1183–1188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Diaz-Sanchez D, Proietti L, Polosa R (2003) Diesel fumes and the rising prevalence of atopy: an urban legend? Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 3(2):146–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Diaz-Sanchez D, Rumold R, Gong H Jr (2006) Challenge with environmental tobacco smoke exacerbates allergic airway disease in human beings. J Allergy Clin Immunol 118(2):441–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Diette GB, Hansel NN, Buckley TJ, Curtin-Brosnan J, Eggleston PA, Matsui EC et al (2007) Home indoor pollutant exposures among inner-city children with and without asthma. Environ Health Perspect 115(11):1665–1669PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dillon MA, Harris B, Hernandez ML, Zou B, Reed W, Bromberg PA et al (2011) Enhancement of systemic and sputum granulocyte response to inhaled endotoxin in people with the GSTM1 null genotype. Occup Environ Med 25Google Scholar
  52. Eisner MD (2002) Environmental tobacco smoke and adult asthma. Clin Chest Med 23(4):749–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Eisner MD, Yelin EH, Katz PP, Earnest G, Blanc PD (2002) Exposure to indoor combustion and adult asthma outcomes: environmental tobacco smoke, gas stoves, and woodsmoke. Thorax 57(11):973–978PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Eldridge MW, Peden DB (2000) Allergen provocation augments endotoxin-induced nasal inflammation in subjects with atopic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 105(3):475–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Etzel RA (2003) How environmental exposures influence the development and exacerbation of asthma. Pediatrics 112(1 Pt 2):233–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Friedman MS, Powell KE, Hutwagner L, Graham LM, Teague WG (2001) Impact of changes in transportation and commuting behaviors during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta on air quality and childhood asthma. JAMA 285(7):897–905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Fuleihan RL (2002) The hygiene hypothesis and atopic disease. Curr Opin Pediatr 14(6):676–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gent JF, Triche EW, Holford TR, Belanger K, Bracken MB, Beckett WS et al (2003) Association of low-level ozone and fine particles with respiratory symptoms in children with asthma. JAMA 290(14):1859–1867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gergen PJ (2001) Environmental tobacco smoke as a risk factor for respiratory disease in children. Respir Physiol 128(1):39–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Ghio AJ (2004) Biological effects of Utah Valley ambient air particles in humans: a review. J Aerosol Med 17(2):157–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ghio AJ, Devlin RB (2001) Inflammatory lung injury after bronchial instillation of air pollution particles. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 164(4):704–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ghio AJ, Kim C, Devlin RB (2000) Concentrated ambient air particles induce mild pulmonary inflammation in healthy human volunteers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162(3 Pt 1):981–988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Ghio AJ, Hall A, Bassett MA, Cascio WE, Devlin RB (2003) Exposure to concentrated ambient air particles alters hematologic indices in humans. Inhal Toxicol 15(14):1465–1478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Ghio AJ, Soukup JM, Case M, Dailey LA, Richards J, Berntsen J et al (2012) Exposure to wood smoke particles produces inflammation in healthy volunteers. Occup Environ Med 69(3):170–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Gilliland FD, Berhane K, McConnell R, Gauderman WJ, Vora H, Rappaport EB et al (2000) Maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and childhood lung function. Thorax 55(4):271–276PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Gilliland FD, Li YF, Dubeau L, Berhane K, Avol E, McConnell R et al (2002) Effects of glutathione S-transferase M1, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and environmental tobacco smoke on asthma and wheezing in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166(4):457–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Li YF, Rappaport EB, Peters JM (2003) Effects of early onset asthma and in utero exposure to maternal smoking on childhood lung function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167(6):917–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Gilliland FD, Li YF, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D (2004) Effect of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and P1 genotypes on xenobiotic enhancement of allergic responses: randomised, placebo-controlled crossover study. Lancet 363(9403):119–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Gilliland FD, Li YF, Gong H Jr, Diaz-Sanchez D (2006) Glutathione s-transferases M1 and P1 prevent aggravation of allergic responses by secondhand smoke. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 174(12):1335–1341PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Gilmour MI, Jaakkola MS, London SJ, Nel AE, Rogers CA (2006) How exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, outdoor air pollutants, and increased pollen burdens influences the incidence of asthma. Environ Health Perspect 114(4):627–633PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gold DR (2000) Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma. Environ Health Perspect 108(Suppl 4):643–651PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Graff DW, Cascio WE, Rappold A, Zhou H, Huang YC, Devlin RB (2009) Exposure to concentrated coarse air pollution particles causes mild cardiopulmonary effects in healthy young adults. Environ Health Perspect 117(7):1089–1094PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hanna AF, Yeatts KB, Xiu A, Zhu Z, Smith RL, Davis NN et al (2011) Associations between ozone and morbidity using the Spatial Synoptic Classification system. Environ Health 10:49PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hatch GE, Slade R, Harris LP, McDonnell WF, Devlin RB, Koren HS et al (1994) Ozone dose and effect in humans and rats. A comparison using oxygen-18 labeling and bronchoalveolar lavage. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150(3):676–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hazucha MJ, Bates DV, Bromberg PA (1989) Mechanism of action of ozone on the human lung. J Appl Physiol 67(4):1535–1541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hazucha MJ, Madden M, Pape G, Becker S, Devlin R, Koren HS et al (1996) Effects of cyclo-oxygenase inhibition on ozone-induced respiratory inflammation and lung function changes. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 73(1–2):17–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution (1996) Committee of the Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly of the American Thoracic Society. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 153(1):3–50Google Scholar
  78. Heederik D, Sigsgaard T (2005) Respiratory allergy in agricultural workers: recent developments. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 5(2):129–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hernandez ML, Lay JC, Harris B, Esther CR Jr, Brickey WJ, Bromberg PA et al (2010) Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without asthma have enhanced inflammatory response to ozone. J Allergy Clin Immunol 126(3):537–544PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hernandez ML, Herbst M, Lay JC, Alexis NE, Brickey WJ, Ting JP et al (2012a) Atopic asthmatic patients have reduced airway inflammatory cell recruitment after inhaled endotoxin challenge compared with healthy volunteers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 130(4):869–876PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hernandez M, Brickey WJ, Alexis NE, Fry RC, Rager JE, Zhou B et al (2012b) Airway cells from atopic asthmatic patients exposed to ozone display an enhanced innate immune gene profile. J Allergy Clin Immunol 129(1):259–261PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hernandez ML, Wagner JG, Kala A, Mills K, Wells HB, Alexis NE et al (2013) Vitamin E, gamma-tocopherol, reduces airway neutrophil recruitment after inhaled endotoxin challenge in rats and in healthy volunteers. Free Radic Biol Med 60:56–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hollingsworth JW II, Cook DN, Brass DM, Walker JK, Morgan DL, Foster WM et al (2004) The role of toll-like receptor 4 in environmental airway injury in mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 12Google Scholar
  84. Hollingsworth JW, Maruoka S, Li Z, Potts EN, Brass DM, Garantziotis S et al (2007a) Ambient ozone primes pulmonary innate immunity in mice. J Immunol 179(7):4367–4375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hollingsworth JW, Kleeberger SR, Foster WM (2007b) Ozone and pulmonary innate immunity. Proc Am Thorac Soc 4(3):240–246PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hollingsworth JW, Free ME, Li Z, Andrews LN, Nakano H, Cook DN (2010) Ozone activates pulmonary dendritic cells and promotes allergic sensitization through a toll-like receptor 4-dependent mechanism. J Allergy Clin Immunol 125(5):1167–1170PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Holz O, Mucke M, Paasch K, Bohme S, Timm P, Richter K et al (2002) Repeated ozone exposures enhance bronchial allergen responses in subjects with rhinitis or asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 32(5):681–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Holz O, Tal-Singer R, Kanniess F, Simpson KJ, Gibson A, Vessey RS et al (2005) Validation of the human ozone challenge model as a tool for assessing anti-inflammatory drugs in early development. J Clin Pharmacol 45(5):498–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Horstman D, Hazucha M, Haak E, Stacy R (1982) Effects of submicronic sulfuric acid aerosol on human pulmonary function. Arch Environ Health 37(3):136–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Horstman DH, Seal E Jr, Folinsbee LJ, Ives P, Roger LJ (1988) The relationship between exposure duration and sulfur dioxide-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 49(1):38–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Huang YC, Rappold AG, Graff DW, Ghio AJ, Devlin RB (2012) Synergistic effects of exposure to concentrated ambient fine pollution particles and nitrogen dioxide in humans. Inhal Toxicol 24(12):790–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Jaakkola JJ, Jaakkola MS (2002) Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on the respiratory health of children. Scand J Work Environ Health 28(Suppl 2):71–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Jaspers I, Ciencewicki JM, Zhang W, Brighton LE, Carson JL, Beck MA et al (2005) Diesel exhaust enhances influenza virus infections in respiratory epithelial cells. Toxicol Sci 85(2):990–1002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Jenkins HS, Devalia JL, Mister RL, Bevan AM, Rusznak C, Davies RJ (1999) The effect of exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide on the airway response of atopic asthmatics to inhaled allergen: dose- and time-dependent effects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160(1):33–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Johnston FH, Henderson SB, Chen Y, Randerson JT, Marlier M, Defries RS et al (2012) Estimated global mortality attributable to smoke from landscape fires. Environ Health Perspect 120(5):695–701PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Jones SC, Travers MJ, Hahn EJ, Robertson H, Lee K, Higbee C et al (2006) Secondhand smoke and indoor public spaces in Paducah, Kentucky. J Ky Med Assoc 104(7):281–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Jorres R, Nowak D, Magnussen H (1996) The effect of ozone exposure on allergen responsiveness in subjects with asthma or rhinitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 153(1):56–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kehrl HR, Vincent LM, Kowalsky RJ, Horstman DH, O’Neil JJ, McCartney WH et al (1987) Ozone exposure increases respiratory epithelial permeability in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis 135(5):1124–1128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kehrl HR, Peden DB, Ball B, Folinsbee LJ, Horstman D (1999) Increased specific airway reactivity of persons with mild allergic asthma after 7.6 hours of exposure to 0.16 ppm ozone. J Allergy Clin Immunol 104(6):1198–1204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kim CS, Alexis NE, Rappold AG, Kehrl H, Hazucha MJ, Lay JC et al (2011) Lung function and inflammatory responses in healthy young adults exposed to 0.06 ppm ozone for 6.6 hours. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 183(9):1215–1221PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kleeberger SR, Peden D (2005) Gene-environment interactions in asthma and other respiratory diseases. Annu Rev Med 56:383–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kodgule R, Salvi S (2012) Exposure to biomass smoke as a cause for airway disease in women and children. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 12(1):82–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Koenig JQ (1999) Air pollution and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 104(4 Pt 1):717–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Koenig JQ, Pierson WE (1991) Air pollutants and the respiratory system: toxicity and pharmacologic interventions. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 29(3):401–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Lannero E, Wickman M, Pershagen G, Nordvall L (2006) Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of recurrent wheezing during the first years of life (BAMSE). Respir Res 7:3PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Lay JC, Alexis NE, Kleeberger SR, Roubey RA, Harris BD, Bromberg PA et al (2007) Ozone enhances markers of innate immunity and antigen presentation on airway monocytes in healthy individuals. J Allergy Clin Immunol 120(3):719–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lazaar AL, Sweeney LE, Macdonald AJ, Alexis NE, Chen C, Tal-Singer R (2011) SB-656933, a novel CXCR2 selective antagonist, inhibits ex-vivo neutrophil activation and ozone-induced airway inflammation in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol 22Google Scholar
  108. Li YF, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Dubeau L, Gilliland FD (2006) Associations of tumor necrosis factor G-308A with childhood asthma and wheezing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 173(9):970–976PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Li Z, Potts EN, Piantadosi CA, Foster WM, Hollingsworth JW (2010) Hyaluronan fragments contribute to the ozone-primed immune response to lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol 185(11):6891–6898PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Liu AH (2002) Endotoxin exposure in allergy and asthma: reconciling a paradox. J Allergy Clin Immunol 109(3):379–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Liu AH (2004) Something old, something new: indoor endotoxin, allergens and asthma. Paediatr Respir Rev 5(Suppl A):S65–S71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Liu AH, Leung DY (2006) Renaissance of the hygiene hypothesis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 117(5):1063–1066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Liu AH, Redmon AH Jr (2001) Endotoxin: friend or foe? Allergy Asthma Proc 22(6):337–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. London SJ (2007) Gene-air pollution interactions in asthma. Proc Am Thorac Soc 4(3):217–220PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lotvall J, Akdis CA, Bacharier LB, Bjermer L, Casale TB, Custovic A et al (2011) Asthma endotypes: a new approach to classification of disease entities within the asthma syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol 127(2):355–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Lovinsky-Desir S, Miller RL (2012) Epigenetics, asthma, and allergic diseases: a review of the latest advancements. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 12(3):211–220PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Malo JL, Vandenplas O (2011) Definitions and classification of work-related asthma. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 31(4):645–662, vPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Mannino DM, Homa DM, Redd SC (2002) Involuntary smoking and asthma severity in children: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Chest 122(2):409–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Matsui EC, Hansel NN, McCormack MC, Rusher R, Breysse PN, Diette GB (2008) Asthma in the inner city and the indoor environment. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 28(3):665–686, xPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Matsui EC, Hansel NN, Aloe C, Schiltz AM, Peng RD, Rabinovitch N et al (2013) Indoor pollutant exposures modify the effect of airborne endotoxin on asthma in urban children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 188(10):1210–1215PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, London SJ, Vora H, Avol E et al (1999) Air pollution and bronchitic symptoms in Southern California children with asthma. Environ Health Perspect 107(9):757–760PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, London SJ, Islam T, Gauderman WJ et al (2002) Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: a cohort study. Lancet 359(9304):386–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, Molitor J, Thomas D, Lurmann F et al (2003) Prospective study of air pollution and bronchitic symptoms in children with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 168(7):790–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. McConnell R, Berhane K, Molitor J, Gilliland F, Kunzli N, Thorne PS et al (2006) Dog ownership enhances symptomatic responses to air pollution in children with asthma. Environ Health Perspect 114(12):1910–1915PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. McConnell R, Islam T, Shankardass K, Jerrett M, Lurmann F, Gilliland F et al (2010) Childhood incident asthma and traffic-related air pollution at home and school. Environ Health Perspect 118(7):1021–1026PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. McDonnell WF, Horstman DH, Hazucha MJ, Seal E Jr, Haak ED, Salaam SA et al (1983) Pulmonary effects of ozone exposure during exercise: dose-response characteristics. J Appl Physiol 54(5):1345–1352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. McDonnell WF, Muller KE, Bromberg PA, Shy CM (1993) Predictors of individual differences in acute response to ozone exposure. Am Rev Respir Dis 147(4):818–825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. McDonnell WF, Abbey DE, Nishino N, Lebowitz MD (1999) Long-term ambient ozone concentration and the incidence of asthma in nonsmoking adults: the AHSMOG study. Environ Res 80(2 Pt 1):110–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Michel O, Ginanni R, Sergysels R (1995) Protective effect of sodium cromoglycate on lipopolysaccharide-induced bronchial obstruction in asthmatics. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 108(3):298–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Molfino NA, Wright SC, Katz I, Tarlo S, Silverman F, McClean PA et al (1991) Effect of low concentrations of ozone on inhaled allergen responses in asthmatic subjects. Lancet 338(8761):199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Moore K, Neugebauer R, Lurmann F, Hall J, Brajer V, Alcorn S et al (2008) Ambient ozone concentrations cause increased hospitalizations for asthma in children: an 18-year study in Southern California. Environ Health Perspect 116(8):1063–1070PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Morgan WJ, Martinez FD (1992) Risk factors for developing wheezing and asthma in childhood. Pediatr Clin North Am 39(6):1185–1203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Mudway IS, Stenfors N, Duggan ST, Roxborough H, Zielinski H, Marklund SL et al (2004) An in vitro and in vivo investigation of the effects of diesel exhaust on human airway lining fluid antioxidants. Arch Biochem Biophys 423(1):200–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Mueller-Anneling L, Avol E, Peters JM, Thorne PS (2004) Ambient endotoxin concentrations in PM10 from Southern California. Environ Health Perspect 112(5):583–588PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Naeher LP, Brauer M, Lipsett M, Zelikoff JT, Simpson CD, Koenig JQ et al (2007) Woodsmoke health effects: a review. Inhal Toxicol 19(1):67–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Nel AE, Diaz-Sanchez D, Li N (2001) The role of particulate pollutants in pulmonary inflammation and asthma: evidence for the involvement of organic chemicals and oxidative stress. Curr Opin Pulm Med 7(1):20–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Noah TL, Zhou H, Jaspers I (2012a) Alteration of the nasal responses to influenza virus by tobacco smoke. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 12(1):24–31PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Noah TL, Zhou H, Zhang H, Horvath K, Robinette C, Kesic M et al (2012b) Diesel exhaust exposure and nasal response to attenuated influenza in normal and allergic volunteers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 185(2):179–185PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Noonan CW, Balmes JR (2010) Biomass smoke exposures: health outcomes measures and study design. Inhal Toxicol 22(2):108–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Ostro B, Roth L, Malig B, Marty M (2009) The effects of fine particle components on respiratory hospital admissions in children. Environ Health Perspect 117(3):475–480PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Pacheco KA, Rose CS, Thorne PS, O’Neill ME, McCammon C, Martyny J et al (2002) Airborne endotoxin is a significant determinant of symptoms in laboratory animal workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 109(1):S281Google Scholar
  142. Pandya RJ, Solomon G, Kinner A, Balmes JR (2002) Diesel exhaust and asthma: hypotheses and molecular mechanisms of action. Environ Health Perspect 110(Suppl 1):103–112PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Passannante AN, Hazucha MJ, Bromberg PA, Seal E, Folinsbee L, Koch G (1998) Nociceptive mechanisms modulate ozone-induced human lung function decrements. J Appl Physiol 85(5):1863–1870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Peden DB (1997) Mechanisms of pollution-induced airway disease: in vivo studies. Allergy 52(38 Suppl):37–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Peden DB (2002) Pollutants and asthma: role of air toxics. Environ Health Perspect 110(Suppl 4):565–568PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Peden DB (2005) The epidemiology and genetics of asthma risk associated with air pollution. J Allergy Clin Immunol 115(2):213–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Peden DB (2008) Air pollution: indoor and outdoor. In: Adkinson NF Jr, Busse W, Bochner B, Holgate S, Simons FE, Lemanske R (eds) Middleton’s allergy: principles and practice, 7th edn. Mosby, Philadelphia, pp 495–508Google Scholar
  148. Peden DB (2011) The role of oxidative stress and innate immunity in O(3) and endotoxin-induced human allergic airway disease. Immunol Rev 242(1):91–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Peden DB, Setzer RW Jr, Devlin RB (1995) Ozone exposure has both a priming effect on allergen-induced responses and an intrinsic inflammatory action in the nasal airways of perennially allergic asthmatics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151(5):1336–1345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Peden DB, Boehlecke B, Horstman D, Devlin R (1997) Prolonged acute exposure to 0.16 ppm ozone induces eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic subjects with allergies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 100(6 Pt 1):802–808PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Peel JL, Tolbert PE, Klein M, Metzger KB, Flanders WD, Todd K et al (2005) Ambient air pollution and respiratory emergency department visits. Epidemiology 16(2):164–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Perzanowski MS, Miller RL, Thorne PS, Barr RG, Divjan A, Sheares BJ et al (2006) Endotoxin in inner-city homes: associations with wheeze and eczema in early childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol 117(5):1082–1089PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Pierson WE, Covert DS, Koenig JQ, Namekata T, Kim YS (1986) Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 18(3):322–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Pope CA III (1989) Respiratory disease associated with community air pollution and a steel mill, Utah Valley. Am J Public Health 79(5):623–628PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Pope CA III (1991) Respiratory hospital admissions associated with PM10 pollution in Utah, Salt Lake, and Cache Valleys. Arch Environ Health 46(2):90–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Pourazar J, Frew AJ, Blomberg A, Helleday R, Kelly FJ, Wilson S et al (2004) Diesel exhaust exposure enhances the expression of IL-13 in the bronchial epithelium of healthy subjects. Respir Med 98(9):821–825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Pourazar J, Mudway IS, Samet JM, Helleday R, Blomberg A, Wilson SJ et al (2005) Diesel exhaust activates redox-sensitive transcription factors and kinases in human airways. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 289(5):L724–L730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Que LG, Stiles JV, Sundy JS, Foster WM (2011) Pulmonary function, bronchial reactivity, and epithelial permeability are response phenotypes to ozone and develop differentially in healthy humans. J Appl Physiol (1985) 111(3):679–687Google Scholar
  159. Rabinovitch N, Liu AH, Zhang L, Rodes CE, Foarde K, Dutton SJ et al (2005) Importance of the personal endotoxin cloud in school-age children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 116(5):1053–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Rabinovitch N, Strand M, Stuhlman K, Gelfand EW (2008) Exposure to tobacco smoke increases leukotriene E4-related albuterol usage and response to montelukast. J Allergy Clin Immunol 121(6):1365–1371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Rabinovitch N, Silveira L, Gelfand EW, Strand M (2011a) The response of children with asthma to ambient particulate is modified by tobacco smoke exposure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 184(12):1350–1357PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Rabinovitch N, Reisdorph N, Silveira L, Gelfand EW (2011b) Urinary leukotriene E(4) levels identify children with tobacco smoke exposure at risk for asthma exacerbation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 128(2):323–327PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Rappold AG, Stone SL, Cascio WE, Neas LM, Kilaru VJ, Carraway MS et al (2011) Peat bog wildfire smoke exposure in rural North Carolina is associated with cardiopulmonary emergency department visits assessed through syndromic surveillance. Environ Health Perspect 119(10):1415–1420PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Redlich CA, Karol MH (2002) Diisocyanate asthma: clinical aspects and immunopathogenesis. Int Immunopharmacol 2(2–3):213–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Riddervold IS, Bonlokke JH, Olin AC, Gronborg TK, Schlunssen V, Skogstrand K et al (2012) Effects of wood smoke particles from wood-burning stoves on the respiratory health of atopic humans. Part Fibre Toxicol 9(1):12PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Riedl M, Diaz-Sanchez D (2005) Biology of diesel exhaust effects on respiratory function. J Allergy Clin Immunol 115(2):221–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Ritz SA, Wan J, Diaz-Sanchez D (2007) Sulforaphane-stimulated phase II enzyme induction inhibits cytokine production by airway epithelial cells stimulated with diesel extract. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 292(1):L33–L39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Romieu I, Trenga C (2001) Diet and obstructive lung diseases. Epidemiol Rev 23(2):268–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Romieu I, Meneses F, Ruiz S, Huerta J, Sienra JJ, White M et al (1997) Effects of intermittent ozone exposure on peak expiratory flow and respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children in Mexico City. Arch Environ Health 52(5):368–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Romieu I, Meneses F, Ramirez M, Ruiz S, Perez PR, Sienra JJ et al (1998) Antioxidant supplementation and respiratory functions among workers exposed to high levels of ozone. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158(1):226–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Romieu I, Sienra-Monge JJ, Ramirez-Aguilar M, Tellez-Rojo MM, Moreno-Macias H, Reyes-Ruiz NI et al (2002) Antioxidant supplementation and lung functions among children with asthma exposed to high levels of air pollutants. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166(5):703–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Romieu I, Sienra-Monge JJ, Ramirez-Aguilar M, Moreno-Macias H, Reyes-Ruiz NI, Estela del Rio-Navarro B et al (2004) Genetic polymorphism of GSTM1 and antioxidant supplementation influence lung function in relation to ozone exposure in asthmatic children in Mexico City. Thorax 59(1):8–10PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Romieu I, Ramirez-Aguilar M, Sienra-Monge JJ, Moreno-Macias H, Rio-Navarro BE, David G et al (2006) GSTM1 and GSTP1 and respiratory health in asthmatic children exposed to ozone. Eur Respir J 28(5):953–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Rudell B, Ledin MC, Hammarstrom U, Stjernberg N, Lundback B, Sandstrom T (1996) Effects on symptoms and lung function in humans experimentally exposed to diesel exhaust. Occup Environ Med 53(10):658–662PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Sallsten G, Gustafson P, Johansson L, Johannesson S, Molnar P, Strandberg B et al (2006) Experimental wood smoke exposure in humans. Inhal Toxicol 18(11):855–864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Salvi SS, Nordenhall C, Blomberg A, Rudell B, Pourazar J, Kelly FJ et al (2000) Acute exposure to diesel exhaust increases IL-8 and GRO-alpha production in healthy human airways. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161(2 Pt 1):550–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Samet JM, Hatch GE, Horstman D, Steck-Scott S, Arab L, Bromberg PA et al (2001) Effect of antioxidant supplementation on ozone-induced lung injury in human subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 164(5):819–825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Schachter EN, Witek TJ Jr, Beck GJ, Hosein HB, Colice G, Leaderer BP et al (1984) Airway effects of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide: dose-response characteristics. Arch Environ Health 39(1):34–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Schaumann F, Borm PJ, Herbrich A, Knoch J, Pitz M, Schins RP et al (2004) Metal-rich ambient particles (particulate matter 2.5) cause airway inflammation in healthy subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 170(8):898–903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Schaumann F, Muller M, Braun A, Luettig B, Peden DB, Hohlfeld JM et al (2008) Endotoxin augments myeloid dendritic cell influx into the airways in patients with allergic asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 177(12):1307–1313PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Schelegle ES, Adams WC, Siefkin AD (1987) Indomethacin pretreatment reduces ozone-induced pulmonary function decrements in human subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 136(6):1350–1354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Schwartz J, Slater D, Larson TV, Pierson WE, Koenig JQ (1993) Particulate air pollution and hospital emergency room visits for asthma in Seattle. Am Rev Respir Dis 147(4):826–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Sharma HP, Hansel NN, Matsui E, Diette GB, Eggleston P, Breysse P (2007) Indoor environmental influences on children’s asthma. Pediatr Clin North Am 54(1):103–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Silverman RA, Ito K (2010) Age-related association of fine particles and ozone with severe acute asthma in New York City. J Allergy Clin Immunol 125(2):367–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Stenfors N, Nordenhall C, Salvi SS, Mudway I, Soderberg M, Blomberg A et al (2004) Different airway inflammatory responses in asthmatic and healthy humans exposed to diesel. Eur Respir J 23(1):82–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Stockfelt L, Sallsten G, Olin AC, Almerud P, Samuelsson L, Johannesson S et al (2012) Effects on airways of short-term exposure to two kinds of wood smoke in a chamber study of healthy humans. Inhal Toxicol 24(1):47–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Sunyer J, Atkinson R, Ballester F, Le TA, Ayres JG, Forastiere F et al (2003) Respiratory effects of sulphur dioxide: a hierarchical multicity analysis in the APHEA 2 study. Occup Environ Med 60(8):e2PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Szema AM (2012) Work-exacerbated asthma. Clin Chest Med 33(4):617–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Tarlo SM, Balmes J, Balkissoon R, Beach J, Beckett W, Bernstein D et al (2008) Diagnosis and management of work-related asthma: American College of Chest Physicians consensus statement. Chest 134(3 Suppl):1S–41SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Thorne PS, Kulhankova K, Yin M, Cohn R, Arbes SJ, Zeldin DC (2005) Endotoxin exposure is a risk factor for asthma - The National Survey of Endotoxin in United States Housing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172(11):1371–1377PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Trenga CA, Koenig JQ, Williams PV (2001) Dietary antioxidants and ozone-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adults with asthma. Arch Environ Health 56(3):242–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Tunnicliffe WS, Burge PS, Ayres JG (1994) Effect of domestic concentrations of nitrogen dioxide on airway responses to inhaled allergen in asthmatic patients. Lancet 344(8939–8940):1733–1736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Vagaggini B, Taccola M, Conti I, Carnevali S, Cianchetti S, Bartoli ML et al (2001) Budesonide reduces neutrophilic but not functional airway response to ozone in mild asthmatics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 164(12):2172–2176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Vagaggini B, Taccola M, Cianchetti S, Carnevali S, Bartoli ML, Bacci E et al (2002) Ozone exposure increases eosinophilic airway response induced by previous allergen challenge. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166(8):1073–1077PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Von Essen S (1997) The role of endotoxin in grain dust exposure and airway obstruction. Curr Opin Pulm Med 3(3):198–202Google Scholar
  196. Von Essen S, Donham K (1999) Illness and injury in animal confinement workers. Occup Med 14(2):337–350Google Scholar
  197. Von Essen SG, McCurdy SA (1998) Health and safety risks in production agriculture. West J Med 169(4):214–220Google Scholar
  198. Von Essen SG, O’Neill DP, Olenchok SA, Robbins RA, Rennard SI (1995a) Grain dusts and grain plant components vary in their ability to recruit neutrophils. J Toxicol Environ Health 46(4):425–441Google Scholar
  199. Von Essen SG, O’Neill DP, McGranaghan S, Olenchock SA, Rennard SI (1995b) Neutrophilic respiratory tract inflammation and peripheral blood neutrophilia after grain sorghum dust extract challenge. Chest 108(5):1425–1433Google Scholar
  200. Von Essen SG, Scheppers LA, Robbins RA, Donham KJ (1998) Respiratory tract inflammation in swine confinement workers studied using induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 36(6):557–565Google Scholar
  201. von Mutius E (2000) The environmental predictors of allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 105(1 Pt 1):9–19Google Scholar
  202. Wan J, Diaz-Sanchez D (2006) Phase II enzymes induction blocks the enhanced IgE production in B cells by diesel exhaust particles. J Immunol 177(5):3477–3483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Wang JH, Devalia JL, Duddle JM, Hamilton SA, Davies RJ (1995a) Effect of six-hour exposure to nitrogen dioxide on early-phase nasal response to allergen challenge in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96(5 Pt 1):669–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Wang JH, Duddle J, Devalia JL, Davies RJ (1995b) Nitrogen dioxide increases eosinophil activation in the early-phase response to nasal allergen provocation. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 107(1–3):103–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Wenzel S (2012) Severe asthma: from characteristics to phenotypes to endotypes. Clin Exp Allergy 42(5):650–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Wu W, Doreswamy V, Diaz-Sanchez D, Samet JM, Kesic M, Dailey L et al (2011) GSTM1 modulation of IL-8 expression in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to ozone. Free Radic Biol Med 51(2):522–529PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Yang IA, Holz O, Jorres RA, Magnussen H, Barton SJ, Rodriguez S et al (2005) Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms and ozone-induced change in lung function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171(2):171–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Yang IA, Fong KM, Zimmerman PV, Holgate ST, Holloway JW (2008) Genetic susceptibility to the respiratory effects of air pollution. Thorax 63(6):555–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Ying RL, Gross KB, Terzo TS, Eschenbacher WL (1990) Indomethacin does not inhibit the ozone-induced increase in bronchial responsiveness in human subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 142(4):817–821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Zeldin DC, Eggleston P, Chapman M, Piedimonte G, Renz H, Peden D (2006) How exposures to biologics influence the induction and incidence of asthma. Environ Health Perspect 114(4):620–626PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Zelikoff JT, Chen LC, Cohen MD, Schlesinger RB (2002) The toxicology of inhaled woodsmoke. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 5(3):269–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Zhang JJ, Hu W, Wei F, Wu G, Korn LR, Chapman RS (2002) Children’s respiratory morbidity prevalence in relation to air pollution in four Chinese cities. Environ Health Perspect 110(9):961–967PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Allergy, Immunology & Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, School of MedicineUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations