Digoxin is recommended for patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction who continue to have New York Heart Association functional class II–IV symptoms despite appropriate medical therapy and optimization of volume status. Diuretics are the mainstay of therapy for the removal of excess fluid in patients with heart failure (HF). They are equally important for use in patients with decompensated HF as well as in those with stable chronic HF to maintain euvolemia. This chapter will review the pharmacokinetics and appropriate use criteria of available cardiac glycosides and diuretics as well as drugs that are used primarily for their vasodilator properties in patients with HF. Newer agents such as Arginine Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists and Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists are also reviewed.
- Heart failure
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Marti, C.N., Cole, R.T., Giamouzis, G., Butler, J. (2015). Digoxin, Diuretics, and Vasodilators in Patients with Heart Failure. In: Baliga, R., Haas, G. (eds) Management of Heart Failure. Springer, London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-6657-3_4
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