Voltage Instability Indicators

  • Sandro CorsiEmail author
Part of the Advances in Industrial Control book series (AIC)


In the first section of the chapter, we discuss how to recognise voltage instability using reliable indices, mainly those having real-time performance. The introduction provides a general overview of voltage stability indices (VSI) as proposed in the literature, distinguishing the great amount of VSI that fall into the off-line category from the few belonging to the on-line group that can be properly considered true real-time indicators.


Power System Reactive Power Voltage Stability Load Flow Phasor Measurement Unit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    CIGRE-TF 38-02-10 (1993) Modelling of voltage collapse including dynamic phenomena. CIGRE Brochure 75, Summary in Electra, pp 71–77Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    IEEE/PES, Power System Stability Subcommittee Voltage stability assessment—Procedures and guides. Special Publication, SP101 PSSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Van Cutsem T, Vournas C (1998) Voltage stability of electric power systems. Kluwer, NorwellCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Taylor CW (1994) Power system voltage stability. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abe S, Fukunaga Y, Isono A, Kondo B (1982) Power system voltage stability. IEEE Trans Power Syst 101(10):3830–3840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ajjarapu V, Lee B (1998) Bibliography on voltage stability. IEEE Trans Power Syst PWRS-13(1):115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sauer PW, Pai MA (1990) Power system steady-state stability and the load flow Jacobian. IEEE Trans Power Syst 5(4):1374–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee BH, Lee KY (1991) A study on voltage collapse mechanism in electric power systems. IEEE Trans Power Syst 6(3):966–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Van Cutsem T, Moisse C, Mailhot R (1999) Determination of secure operating limits with respect to voltage collapse. IEEE Trans Power Syst 14(1):327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    CIGRE-TF38-02-11 (1994) Indices predicting voltage collapse including dynamic phenomena. CIGRE ReportGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chow JC, Fischl R, Yan H (1990) On the evaluation of voltage collapse criteria. IEEE Trans Power Syst 5(2):612–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cañizares CA, de Souza ACZ, Quintana VH (1996) Comparison of performance indices for detection of proximity to voltage collapse. IEEE Trans Power Syst 11(3):1441–1450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marannino P, Bresesti P, Delfanti M, Montagna M (1994) Voltage collapse proximity indicator for very short-term security assessment. Seminar on Bulk Power System Voltage Phenomena III–Voltage Stability and Security, DavosGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berizzi A, Bresesti P, Marannino P, Granelli GP, Montagna M (1996) System-area operating margin assessment and security enhancement against voltage collapse. IEEE Trans Power Syst 11:1451–1462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berizzi A, Finazzi P, Dosi D, Marannino P, Corsi S (1998) First and second order methods for voltage collapse assessment and security enhancement. IEEE Trans Power Syst 13(2):543–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berizzi A, Zeng YG, Marannino P, Vaccarini A, Scarpellini PA (1998) Voltage collapse assessment in an on-line DSA procedure. Bulk Power System Dynamics & Control, IREP-IV, SantoriniGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gao B, Morison GK, Kundur P (1992) Voltage stability evaluation using modal analysis. IEEE Trans Power Syst 7(4):1529–1542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seydel R (1994) Practical bifurcation and stability analysis from equilibrium to chaos. Springer, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Overbye TJ, De Marco CL (1990) An energy-based security measure for assessing vulnerability to power system collapse. IEEE Trans Power Syst 5(2):419–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Prapost KL, Loparo KA (1994) An energy function method for determining voltage collapse during a power system transient. IEEE Trans Circ Syst 41(10):635–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bompard E, Carpaneto E, Chicco G, Napoli R (1996) A dynamic interpretation of the load flow Jacobian singularity for voltage stability analysis. Int J Elec Power Ener Syst 18(6):385–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cañizares CA (1995) Conditions for saddle node bifurcations in AC/DC power systems. Int J Elec Power Ener Syst 17(1):61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cañizares CA, Alvarado FL (1993) Point of collapse and continuation methods for large AC/DC systems. IEEE Trans Power Syst 8(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ajjarapu V, Feng Z, Long B (1999) Identification of voltage collapse through direct equilibrium tracing. IEEE Trans Power Syst 15(1):342–349Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ajjarapu V, Christy C (1992) The continuation power flow: a tool for steady state voltage stability analysis. IEEE Trans Power Syst 7(1):416–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Haurer JF (1991) Application of Prony analysis to the determination of modal content and equivalent models for measured power system response. IEEE Trans Power Syst 6(3):1062–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cañizares C, Ghasemi H, Reeve J (2004) Prediction of instability points using system identification. Bulk Power System Dynamics & Control, VI-IREP, Cortina D’AmpezzoGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Van Cutsem T, Mailhot R (1997) Validation of a fast voltage stability analysis method on the Hydro-Québec system. IEEE Trans Power Syst 12(1):282–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Begovic MM, Phadke AG (1989) Voltage stability assessment through measurement of a reduced state vector. IEEE/PES Summer Meeting, Long BeachGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Savulescu SC, Oatts ML, Pruitt JG, Williamson F, Adapa R (1993) Fast steady-state stability assessment for real-time and operations planning. IEEE Trans Power Syst 8(4):1557–1569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lamaitre C, Paul JP, Tesseron JM, Harmad Y, Zhao YS (1989) An indicator of the risk of voltage profile instability for real-time control application. IEEE/PES Summer Meeting, Long BeachGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ingelsson B, Lindström PO, Karlsson D, Runvik G, Sjödin JO (1997) Wide-area protection against voltage collapse. IEEE Comp Appl Power 10:30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    La Scala M Trovato M Torelli F (1996) A neural network-based method for voltage security monitoring. IEEE Trans Power Syst 11(3):151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Doraiswami R, Appan RG, Liu W, Vijayakumar B (1995) An intelligent scheme to monitor the status of a power system. Elec Power Syst Res 33:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Corsi S, Pozzi M, Marannino P, Zanellini F, Merlo M, Dell’Olio G (2001) Evaluation of load margins with respect to voltage collapse in presence of secondary and tertiary voltage regulation. Bulk Power System Dynamics & Control, IREP-V, OnomichiGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Phadke AG (1993) Synchronised phasor measurements in power systems. IEEE Comp Appl Power 6(2):10–15MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vu K, Begovic MM, Novosel D, Saha MM (1999) Use of local measurements to estimate voltage-stability margin. IEEE Trans Power Syst 14(3):1029–1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Milosevic B, Begovic M (2003) Voltage-stability protection and control using a wide-area network of phasor measurements. IEEE Trans Power Syst 18(1):121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zima M, Larsson M, Korba P, Rehtanz C, Andersson G (2005) Design aspects for wide-area monitoring and control systems. Proc IEEE 93(5):980–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Verbic G, Gubina F (2004) A new concept of voltage-collapse protection based on local phasors. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 19(2):576–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Smon I, Verbic G, Gubina F (2006) Local voltage-stability index using Tellegen’s theorem. IEEE Trans Power Syst 21(3):1267–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Corsi S., Pozzi M (2006) A real-time EHV bus-bar indicator of local voltage instability. IFAC Symposium on Power Plants and Power Systems Control, CalgaryGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Corsi S, Taranto GN (2007) Voltage instability: the different shapes of the “nose”. Bulk Power Systems Dynamics & Control, IREP-VII Conference, CharlestonGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Corsi S, Taranto GN (2008) A real-time voltage instability identification algorithm based on local phasor measurements. IEEE Trans Power App Syst 23(3):1271–1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Corsi S, Taranto GN, Guerra L (2008) New real-time voltage stability indicators based on phasor measurement unit. CIGRE Conference, ParisGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    IEEE Task Force on Excitation Limiters (1995) Recommended models for overexcitation limiting devices. IEEE Trans Ener Conver 10(4):706–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Arcidiacono V, Corsi S (1994) A real-time voltage stability index for bulk system with secondary voltage regulation. Seminar on Bulk Power System Voltage Phenomena III–Voltage Stability and Security, DavosGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Corsi S, Arcidiacono V, Bazzi U, Chinnici R, Mocenigo M, Moreschini G (1996) The regional voltage regulator for Enel’s dispatchers. CIGRE Conference Session Group 39Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ConsultantCastellanzaItaly

Personalised recommendations