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Can We Use Metabolomics to Understand Changes to Gut Microbiota Populations and Function? A Nutritional Perspective

  • Sofia MocoEmail author
  • Alastair B. Ross
Chapter
Part of the Molecular and Integrative Toxicology book series (MOLECUL)

Abstract

Food is an integral part of human life, and the composition of our diet is an important determinant of our health and well-being. Food is also the main source of energy and nutrients for the gut microbiota, the 100 trillion cells that coexist inside us. The impact of macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrates, and fiber) and specific non-nutrient food components (polyphenols) will be reviewed in the context of gut microbial function and interaction with the host. Colonic microbiota provides diverse enzymatic activities differing from our own, which lead to the production of metabolites essential for key metabolic functions, including carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Certain gut metabolites are specific to microbial activity and confer functionalities beyond energy production, such as signalling cascades across cells, tissues, and organs. Metabolomics has proven to be a useful tool to measure the effects of food on the gut microbiota and its interaction with host metabolism.

Keywords

Nutrition Gut Metabolomics Digestion Phase II metabolism Food One carbon metabolism Polyphenols Fiber Microbiota Diet Fat Protein Carbohydrate Choline Short-chain fatty acids Phenolic and phenyl metabolites Indole metabolites Hippurate p-Cresol sulfate Trimethylamine oxide Metabolism Metabolomics Colon Intestine Butyrate Gut-liver Gut-brain Pathways Chocolate Whole-grain cereals Carnitine Branched-chain fatty acids Prebiotics 

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© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Natural Bioactives and ScreeningNestlé Institute of Health SciencesLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological EngineeringChalmers University of TechnologyGothenburgSweden

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