Calcium Channel Blockers

  • Esen Özkaya
  • Kurtuluş Didem Yazganoğlu


Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can be pharmacologically classified into different subgroups as benzothiazepines (diltiazem), phenylalkylamines (verapamil, gallopamil), dihydropyridines (nifedipine, nicardipine, nisoldipine, nimodipine, nitradipine, nilvadipine, nitrendipine, benidipine, felodipine, amlodipine, barnidipine, cilnidipine, efonidipine, manidipine, lacidipine, isradipine, lercanidipine, aranidipine, azelnidipine, pranidipine, clevidipine), and tetraols (mibefradil). Not classified within these subgroups, bepridil blocks sodium channels as well and monatepil has also alpha-1 adrenoreceptor blocking activity. Diltiazem and verapamil are among the class IV antiarrhythmic drugs. Mibefradil was withdrawn from the market due to its potential side effects and drug interactions.


Calcium channel blockers Diltiazem Verapamil Nifedipine Amlodipine Flushing Edema Gingival hyperplasia Gynecomastia Photosensitivity Hyperpigmentation Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis 


  1. 1.
    Ioulios P, Charalampos M, Efrossini T. The spectrum of cutaneous reactions associated with calcium antagonists: a review of the literature and the possible etiopathogenic mechanisms. Dermatol Online J. 2003;9:6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Knowles S, Gupta AK, Shear NH. The spectrum of cutaneous reactions associated with diltiazem: three cases and a review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:201–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stern R, Khalsa JH. Cutaneous adverse reactions associated with calcium channel blockers. Arch Intern Med. 1989;149:829–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kuo M, Winiarski N, Garella S. Nonthrombocytopenic purpura associated sequentially with nifedipine and diltiazem. Ann Pharmacother. 1992;26:1089–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Giustiniani S, Robustelli della Cuna F, Marieni M. Hyperplastic gingivitis during diltiazem therapy. Int J Cardiol. 1987;15:247–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gonzalo Garijo MA, Perez Calderon R, de Argila Fernandez-Duran D, Rangel Mayoral JF. Cutaneous reactions due to diltiazem and cross reactivity with other calcium channel blockers. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2005;33:238–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Westbrook P, Bednarczyk EM, Carlson M, Sheehan H, Bissada NF. Regression of nifedipine-induced gingival hyperplasia following switch to a same class calcium channel blocker, isradipine. J Periodontol. 1997;68:645–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kubota K, Pearce GL, Inman WH. Vasodilation-related adverse events in diltiazem and dihydropyridine calcium antagonists studied by prescription-event monitoring. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1995;48:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Messerli FH. Vasodilatory edema: a common side effect of antihypertensive therapy. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2002;4:479–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Messerli FH, Grossman E. Pedal edema–not all dihydropyridine calcium antagonists are created equal. Am J Hypertens. 2002;15:1019–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leonetti G, Magnani B, Pessina AC, Rappelli A, Trimarco B, Zanchetti A, COHORT Study Group. Tolerability of long-term treatment with lercanidipine versus amlodipine and lacidipine in elderly hypertensives. Am J Hypertens. 2002;15:932–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kobrin I, Charlon V, Lindberg E, Pordy R. Safety of mibefradil, a new once-a-day, selective T-type calcium channel antagonist. Am J Cardiol. 1997;80:40C–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ellis JS, Seymour RA, Steele JG, Robertson P, Butler TJ, Thomason JM. Prevalence of gingival overgrowth induced by calcium channel blockers: a community-based study. J Periodontol. 1999;70:63–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miranda J, Brunet L, Roset P, Berini L, Farre M. Prevalence and risk of gingival overgrowth in patients treated with diltiazem or verapamil. J Clin Periodontol. 2005;32:294–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pascual-Castroviejo I, Pascual Pascual SI. Nicardipine-induced gingival hyperplasia. Neurologia. 1997;12:37–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brown RS, Sein P, Corio R, Bottomley WK. Nitrendipine-induced gingival hyperplasia. First case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1990;70:593–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Young PC, Turiansky GW, Sau P, Liebman MD, Benson PM. Felodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia. Cutis. 1998;62:41–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ikawa K, Ikawa M, Shimauchi H, Iwakura M, Sakamoto S. Treatment of gingival overgrowth induced by manidipine administration. J Periodontol. 2002;73:115–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morisaki I, Dol S, Ueda K, Amano A, Hayashi M, Mihara J. Amlodipine-induced gingival overgrowth: periodontal responses to stopping and restarting the drug. Spec Care Dentist. 2001;21:60–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Karnik R, Bhat KM, Bhat GS. Prevalence of gingival overgrowth among elderly patients under amlodipine therapy at a large Indian teaching hospital. Gerodontology. 2012;29:209–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prisant LM, Herman W. Calcium channel blocker induced gingival overgrowth. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2002;4:310–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cornes PG, Hole AC. Amlodipine gynaecomastia. Breast. 2001;10:544–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Komine N, Takeda Y, Nakamata T. Amlodipine-induced gynecomastia in two patients on long-term hemodialysis therapy. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2003;7:85–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Otto C, Richter WO. Unilateral gynecomastia induced by treatment with diltiazem. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Romeo JH, Dombrowski R, Kwak YS, Fuehrer S, Aron DC. Hyperprolactinaemia and verapamil: prevalence and potential association with hypogonadism in men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1996;45:571–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Baker BA, Cacchione JG. Dermatologic cross-sensitivity between diltiazem and amlodipine. Ann Pharmacother. 1994;28:118–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cholez C, Trechot P, Schmutz JL, Faure G, Bene MC, Barbaud A. Maculopapular rash induced by diltiazem: allergological investigations in four patients and cross reactions between calcium channel blockers. Allergy. 2003;58:1207–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Heymann WR. Diltiazem-induced drug eruption sparing seborrheic keratoses. Cutis. 2000;66:129–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Parish LC, Witkowski JA. Truncal morbilliform eruption due to nifedipine. Cutis. 1992;49:113–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nucera E, Schavino D, Roncallo C, de Pasquale T, Buonomo A, Pollastrini E, Patriarca G. Delayed-type allergy to oral nimodipine. Contact Dermatitis. 2002;47:246–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Seggev JS, Lagstein Z. Photosensitivity skin reactions to calcium channel blockers. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996;97:852–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Young L, Shehade SA, Chalmers RJ. Cutaneous reactions to diltiazem. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1990;15:467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Conilleau V, Dompmartin A, Michel M, Verneuil L, Leroy D. Photoscratch testing in systemic drug-induced photosensitivity. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2000;16:62–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Grabczynska SA, Cowley N. Amlodipine induced-photosensitivity presenting as telangiectasia. Br J Dermatol. 2000;142:1255–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bakkour W, Haylett AK, Gibbs NK, Chalmers RJ, Rhodes LE. Photodistributed telangiectasia induced by calcium channel blockers: case report and review of the literature. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2013;29:272–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Byun JW, Bang CI, Yang BH, Han SH, Song HJ, Lee HS, et al. Photodistributed telangiectasia induced by amlodipine. Ann Dermatol. 2011;23 Suppl 1:S30–2.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Collins P, Ferguson J. Photodistributed nifedipine-induced facial telangiectasia. Br J Dermatol. 1993;129:630–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Silvestre JF, Albares MP, Carnero L, Botella R. Photodistributed felodipine-induced facial telangiectasia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45:323–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Al-Niaimi F, Lyon C. Felodipine-induced eruptive telangiectasia following mastectomy and radiotherapy. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:210–1.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Scherschun L, Lee MW, Lim HW. Diltiazem-associated photodistributed hyperpigmentation: a review of 4 cases. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137:179–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kuykendall-Ivy T, Collier SL, Johnson SM. Diltiazem-induced hyperpigmentation. Cutis. 2004;73:239–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Boyer M, Katta R, Markus R. Diltiazem-induced photodistributed hyperpigmentation. Dermatol Online J. 2003;9:10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Saladi RN, Cohen SR, Phelps RG, Persaud AN, Rudikoff D. Diltiazem induces severe photodistributed hyperpigmentation: case series, histoimmunopathology, management, and review of the literature. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:206–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jaka A, López-Pestaña A, Tuneu A, Lobo C, López-Núñez M, Ormaechea N. Letter: photodistributed reticulated hyperpigmentation related to diltiazem. Dermatol Online J. 2011;17:14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kubo Y, Fukumoto D, Ishigami T, Hida Y, Arase S. Diltiazem-associated photodistributed hyperpigmentation: report of two Japanese cases and published work review. J Dermatol. 2010;37:807–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Erbagci Z. Amlodipine associated hyperpigmentation. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:103–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Serrão V, Caldas Lopes L, Campos Lopes JM, Lobo L, Ferreira A. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis associated with diltiazem. Acta Med Port. 2008;21:99–102.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wakelin SH, James MP. Diltiazem-induced acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1995;20:341–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Janier M, Gerault MH, Carlotti A, Vignon MD, Daniel F. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis due to diltiazem. Br J Dermatol. 1993;129:354–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lambert DG, Dalac S, Beer F, Chavannet P, Portier H. Acute generalized exanthematous pustular dermatitis induced by diltiazem. Br J Dermatol. 1988;118:308–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Vicente-Calleja JM, Aguirre A, Landa N, Crespo V, Gonzalez-Perez R, Diaz-Perez JL. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis due to diltiazem: confirmation by patch testing. Br J Dermatol. 1997;137:837–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fernández-Ruiz M, López-Medrano F, García-Ruiz F, Rodríguez-Peralto JL. Diltiazem-induced acute generalized exanthemic pustulosis: a case and review of the literature. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2009;100:725–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gubinelli E, Cocuroccia B, Girolomoni G. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus induced by nifedipine. J Cutan Med Surg. 2003;7:243–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Crowson AN, Magro CM. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus arising in the setting of calcium channel blocker therapy. Hum Pathol. 1997;28:67–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Crowson AN, Magro CM. Diltiazem and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus-like lesions. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Callen JP. Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2010;19:1107–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cohen AD, Kagen M, Friger M, Halevy S. Calcium channel blockers intake and psoriasis: a case-control study. Acta Derm Venereol. 2001;81:347–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kitamura K, Kanasashi M, Suga C, Saito S, Yoshida S, Ikezawa Z. Cutaneous reactions induced by calcium channel blocker: high frequency of psoriasiform eruptions. J Dermatol. 1993;20:279–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Latessa V. Erythromelalgia: a rare microvascular disease. J Vasc Nurs. 2010;28:67–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sunahara JF, Gora-Harper ML, Nash KS. Possible erythromelalgia-like syndrome associated with nifedipine in a patient with Raynaud’s phenomenon. Ann Pharmacother. 1996;30:484–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Levesque H, Moore N, Wolfe LM, Courtois H. Erythromelalgia induced by nicardipine (inverse Raynaud’s phenomenon?). BMJ. 1989;298:1252–3.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Drenth JP, Michiels JJ, Van Joost T, Vuzevski VD. Verapamil-induced secondary erythermalgia. Br J Dermatol. 1992;127:292–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Nanayakkara PW, van der Veldt AA, Simsek S, Smulders YM, Rauwerda JA. Verapamil-induced erythermalgia. Neth J Med. 2007;65:349–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Swale VJ, McGregor JM. Amlodipine-associated lichen planus. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144:920–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lakshmi C, Srinivas CR, Ramachandran B, Pillai SB, Nirmala V. Perforating lichenoid reaction to amlodipine. Indian J Dermatol. 2008;53:98–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Leibovici V, Zlotogorski A, Heyman A, Kanner A, Melmed RN. Polymorphous drug eruption due to nifedipine. Cutis. 1988;41:367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kim SC, Won JH, Ahn SK. Pemphigus foliaceus induced by nifedipine. Acta Derm Venereol. 1993;73:210–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Brenner S, Golan H, Bialy-Golan A, Ruocco V. Lesion topography in two cases of nifedipine-related pemphigus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 1999;13:123–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ameen M, Harman KE, Black MM. Pemphigoid nodularis associated with nifedipine. Br J Dermatol. 2000;142:575–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Shachar E, Bialy-Golan A, Srebrnik A, Brenner S. “Two-step” drug-induced bullous pemphigoid. Int J Dermatol. 1998;37:938–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Schroeder D, Saada D, Rafaa M, Ingen-Housz-Oro S, Valeyrie-Allanore L, Sigal ML. Verapamil-induced linear IgA disease mimicking toxic epidermal necrolysis. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2011;138:302–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Low L, Zaheri S, Wakelin S. Amlodipine-induced linear IgA disease. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2012;37:649–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sanders CJ, Neumann HA. Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and diltiazem. Lancet. 1993;341:967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bewley AP, Feher MD, Staughton RC. Erythema multiforme following substitution of amlopidine for nifedipine. BMJ. 1993;307:241.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Baetz BE, Patton ML, Guilday RE, Reigart CL, Ackerman BH. Amlodipine-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis. J Burn Care Res. 2011;32:e158–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Odeh M. Exfoliative dermatitis associated with diltiazem. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1997;35:101–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Romano A, Pietrantonio F, Garcovich A, Rumi C, Bellocci F, Caradonna P, Barone C. Delayed hypersensitivity to diltiazem in two patients. Ann Allergy. 1992;69:31–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Scolnick B, Brinberg D. Diltiazem and generalized lymphadenopathy. Ann Intern Med. 1985;102:558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lavrijsen AP, Van Dijke C, Vermeer BJ. Diltiazem-associated exfoliative dermatitis in a patient with psoriasis. Acta Derm Venereol. 1986;66:536–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sadick NS, Katz AS, Schreiber TL. Angioedema from calcium channel blockers. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21:132–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hedner T, Samuelsson O, Lindholm L, Andren L, Wiholm BE. Precipitation of angioedema by antihypertensive drugs. J Hypertens Suppl. 1991;9:360–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Southward J, Irvine E, Rabinovich M. Probable amlodipine-induced angioedema. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43:772–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hom KA, Hirsch R, Elluru RG. Antihypertensive drug-induced angioedema causing upper airway obstruction in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76:14–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pierce WA, Hederman AD, Gordon CJ, Ostrenga AR, Herrington B. Angioedema associated with dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers in a child with Burkitt lymphoma. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2011;68:402–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Inui S, Itami S, Yoshikawa K. A case of lichenoid purpura possibly caused by diltiazem hydrochloride. J Dermatol. 2001;28:100–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Orme S, da Costa D. Generalised pruritus associated with amlodipine. BMJ. 1997;315:463.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Litt JZ. Drug eruption reference manual. 19th ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press (Taylor and Francis Group); 2013.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Torpet LA, Kragelund C, Reibel J, Nauntofte B. Oral adverse drug reactions to cardiovascular drugs. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2004;15:28–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cohen DM, Bhattacharyya I, Lydiatt WM. Recalcitrant oral ulcers caused by calcium channel blockers: diagnosis and treatment considerations. J Am Dent Assoc. 1999;130:1611–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sheehan-Dare RA, Goodfield MJ. Widespread cutaneous vasculitis associated with diltiazem. Postgrad Med J. 1988;64:467–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Murthy MB, Murthy B. Amlodipine-induced petechial rash. J Postgrad Med. 2011;57:341–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cox NH, Walsh ML, Robson RH. Purpura and bleeding due to calcium-channel blockers: an underestimated problem? Case reports and a pilot study. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34:487–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Joly P, Benoit-Corven C, Baricault S, Lambert A, Hellot MF, Josset V, et al. Chronic eczematous eruptions of the elderly are associated with chronic exposure to calcium channel blockers: results from a case-control study. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:2766–71.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Summers EM, Bingham CS, Dahle KW, Sweeney C, Ying J, Sontheimer RD. Chronic eczematous eruptions in the aging: further support for an association with exposure to calcium channel blockers. JAMA Dermatol. 2013;149:814–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lim AC, Hart K, Murrell D. A granuloma annulare-like eruption associated with the use of amlodipine. Australas J Dermatol. 2002;43:24–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Magro CM, Crowson AN, Schapiro BL. The interstitial granulomatous drug reaction: a distinctive clinical and pathological entity. J Cutan Pathol. 1998;25:72–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Magro CM, Cruz-Inigo AE, Votava H, Jacobs M, Wolfe D, Crowson AN. Drug-associated reversible granulomatous T cell dyscrasia: a distinct subset of the interstitial granulomatous drug reaction. J Cutan Pathol. 2010;37 Suppl 1:96–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Fukamachi S, Sugita K, Sawada Y, Bito T, Nakamura M, Tokura Y. Drug-induced CD30+ T cell pseudolymphoma. Eur J Dermatol. 2009;19:292–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kabashima R, Orimo H, Hino R, Nakashima D, Kabashima K, Tokura Y. CD30-positive T-cell pseudolymphoma induced by amlodipine. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008;22:1522–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ilia R, Goldfarb B, Gueron M. Skin thickening and sensory loss of the feet during diltiazem therapy. Int J Cardiol. 1992;35:115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Major P. Verapamil as a cause of palmar hyperkeratosis. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1983;103:2061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sladden MJ, Mortimer NJ, Osborne JE. Longitudinal melanonychia and pseudo-Hutchinson sign associated with amlodipine. Br J Dermatol. 2005;153:219–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esen Özkaya
    • 1
  • Kurtuluş Didem Yazganoğlu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and VenereologyIstanbul University Istanbul Medical FacultyIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations