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Beta Adrenergic Receptor Blockers (Class II Antiarrhythmics)

  • Esen Özkaya
  • Kurtuluş Didem Yazganoğlu
Chapter

Abstract

Beta-blockers are classified into two major subgroups as cardioselective (β1) (acebutolol, atenolol, metoprolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, esmolol, nebivolol) and noncardioselective (β1+β2) blockers (propranolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, timolol, sotalol, carteolol, penbutolol). Additionally, there are other ones with both α and β receptor blocking activities such as labetalol and carvedilol. While β1 receptors are found mostly in the heart muscle, β2 receptors are located mostly on the vascular and bronchial smooth muscle. β2 receptors are also found in the skin. Practolol is no longer used because of its various side effects.

Keywords

Beta-blockers Psoriasis/psoriasiform Oculomucocutaneous syndrome Lichenoid Angioedema/urticaria Lupus erythematosus Peyronie’s disease Vasculitis Cold extremity Gangrene Alopecia 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esen Özkaya
    • 1
  • Kurtuluş Didem Yazganoğlu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and VenereologyIstanbul University Istanbul Medical FacultyIstanbulTurkey

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