Other Cardiovascular Drugs

  • Esen Özkaya
  • Kurtuluş Didem Yazganoğlu


Other cardiovascular drugs not classified in the former sections include alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blockers, sympathomimetics, adrenergic neuron and ganglionic blockers, and drugs that are classified under the section of miscellaneous drugs, i.e., antiarrhythmic drugs like adenosine and digitalis glycosides, pentoxifylline, aminocaproic acid, protamine sulfate, and newer antianginal drugs such as ivabradine, ranolazine, and trimetazidine.


Digoxin Pentoxifylline Aminocaproic acid Antianginal Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers Prazosin Lupus erythematosus Adrenergic neuron blocker Reserpine Gangrene Sympathomimetics Injection site reaction 


  1. 1.
    Marshall AJ, McGraw ME, Barritt DW. Positive antinuclear factor tests with prazosin. Br Med J. 1979;1:165–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wilson JD, Bullock JY, Booth RJ. Influence of prazosin on the development of antinuclear antibodies in hypertensive patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1979;26:209–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Melkild A, Gaarder PI. Does prazosin induce formation of antinuclear factor? Br Med J. 1979;1:620–1.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wilson JD, Booth RJ, Bullock JY. Antinuclear factor in patients on prazosin. Br Med J. 1979;1:553–4.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hernandez-Cano N, Herranz P, Lazaro TE, Mayor M, Casado M. Severe cutaneous reaction due to terazosin. Lancet. 1998;352:202–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Torpet LA, Kragelund C, Reibel J, Nauntofte B. Oral adverse drug reactions to cardiovascular drugs. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2004;15:28–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koh MJ, Seah PP, Tay YK, Mancer K. Lichenoid drug eruption to terazosin. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158:426–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Speck LM, Wilkerson MG, Perri AJ, Kelly BC. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by terazosin hydrochloride. J Drugs Dermatol. 2008;7:395–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    The Treatment of Mild Hypertension Research Group. The treatment of mild hypertension study. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a nutritional-hygienic regimen along with various drug monotherapies. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1413–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Piller LB, Ford CE, Davis BR, Nwachuku C, Black HR, Oparil S, et al. Incidence and predictors of angioedema in elderly hypertensive patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease: a report from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2006;8:649–56; quiz 657–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Litt JZ. Drug eruption reference manual. 19th ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press (Taylor and Francis Group); 2013.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Raison-Peyron N, Du Thanh A, Demoly P, Guillot B. Long-lasting allergic contact blepharoconjunctivitis to phenylephrine eyedrops. Allergy. 2009;64:657–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bhosale GP, Shah VR. Extravasation injury due to dopamine infusion leading to dermal necrosis and gangrene. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2012;28:534–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim SM, Aikat S, Bailey A. Well recognised but still overlooked: norepinephrine extravasation. BMJ Case Rep. 2012. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2012-006836.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    van der Rijt R, Martin-Smith JD, Clover AJ. Reversal of hand peripheral ischaemia due to extravasation of adrenaline during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2013;66:e260–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wu CC, Chen WJ, Cheng JJ, Hsieh YY, Lien WP. Local dermal hypersensitivity from dobutamine hydrochloride (Dobutrex solution) injection. Chest. 1991;99:1547–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tsai Pai MA, Chien SW, Kuo YC, Wu TK, Chen CH, Lim PS. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene after using high-dose inotropes. Acta Nephrologica. 2013;27:48–51.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Colak T, Erdogan O, Yerebakan O, Arici C, Gurkan A. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene and dopamine. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2003;9:222–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hayes MA, Yau EH, Hinds CJ, Watson JD. Symmetrical peripheral gangrene: association with noradrenaline administration. Intensive Care Med. 1992;18:433–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Joynt G, Doedens L, Lipman J, Bothma P. High-dose adrenaline with low systemic vascular resistance and symmetrical peripheral gangrene. S Afr J Surg. 1996;34:99–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Winkler MJ, Trunkey DD. Dopamine gangrene. Association with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Am J Surg. 1981;142:588–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    López Abad R, Iriarte Sotés P, Castro Murga M, Gracia Bara MT, Sesma Sánchez P. Fixed drug eruption induced by phenylephrine: a case of polysensitivity. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2009;19:322–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tsuchimoto T, Miyazaki H, Suzuki E, Maekawa N. Case report: severe anaphylactic shock followed by positive skin-prick-test to multiple vasoconstrictors. Masui. 2010;59:788–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Parsaik AK, Singh B, Altayar O, Mascarenhas SS, Singh SK, Erwin PJ, Murad MH. Midodrine for orthostatic hypotension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. J Gen Intern Med. 2013;28:1496–503.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McCauley CS, Blumenthal MS. Dobutamine and pruritus of the scalp. Ann Intern Med. 1986;105:966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ross M. Dopamine-induced localized cutaneous vasoconstriction and piloerection. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127:586–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baumgart D, Buck T, Leischik R, Oelert H, Farahati J, Reiners C, Erbel R. Enoximon-echocardiography. A new diagnostic approach for the detection of viable myocardium comparison to dobutamin-echocardiography. Herz. 1994;19:227–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Frishman WH, Brosnan BD, Grossman M, Dasgupta D, Sun DK. Adverse dermatologic effects of cardiovascular drug therapy: part III. Cardiol Rev. 2002;10:337–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Almeyda J, Levantine A. Cutaneous reactions to cardiovascular drugs. Br J Dermatol. 1973;88:313–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Frishman WH, Brosnan BD, Grossman M, Dasgupta D, Sun DK. Adverse dermatologic effects of cardiovascular drug therapy: part II. Cardiol Rev. 2002;10:285–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Martin SJ, Shah D. Cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction to digoxin. JAMA. 1994;271:1905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    David M, Livni E, Stern E, Feuerman EJ, Grinblatt J. Psoriasiform eruption induced by digoxin: confirmed by re-exposure. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1981;5:702–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Berger H. Thrombopenic purpura following use of digitoxin. J Am Med Assoc. 1952;148:282–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gonzalez-Mahave I, Del Pozo MD, Blasco A, Lobera T, Venturini M. Urticaria due to pentoxyfylline. Allergy. 2005;60:705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Seoane-Lestón FJ, Añibarro-Bausela MB, Mugíca-García MV, Aguilar-Martínez A. Urticaria caused by pentoxifylline. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2009;19:74–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Patrizi A, Tabanelli M, Antonucci A, Neri I. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by pentoxifylline. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:1310–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Saunderson RB, Garsia R, Headley AP, McCaughan GW, O’Toole S, Strasser SI. Pentoxifylline-induced drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) in a patient with caffeine intolerance. J Dermatol Case Rep. 2013;7:77–81.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gonzalez Gutierrez ML, Esteban Lopez MI, Ruiz Ruiz MD. Positivity of patch tests in cutaneous reaction to aminocaproic acid: two case reports. Allergy. 1995;50:745–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Villarreal O. Systemic dermatitis with eosinophilia due to epsilon-aminocaproic acid. Contact Dermatitis. 1999;40:114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cunha D, Carvalho R, Santos R, Cardoso J. Systemic allergic dermatitis to epsilon-aminocaproic acid. Contact Dermatitis. 2009;61:303–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chakrabarti A, Collett KA. Purpuric rash due to epsilon-aminocaproic acid. Br Med J. 1980;281:197–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brooke CP, Spiers EM, Omura EF. Noninflammatory bullae associated with epsilon-aminocaproic acid infusion. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;27:880–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Miyamoto H, Okajima M. Allergic contact dermatitis from epsilon-aminocaproic acid. Contact Dermatitis. 2000;42:50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yien HW, Hseu SS, Chan KH, Lee TY. Suspected anaphylactoid shock to aminocaproic acid (plaslloid) during operation. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei). 1992;50:415–9.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nybo M, Madsen JS. Serious anaphylactic reactions due to protamine sulfate: a systematic literature review. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008;103:192–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ford SA, Kam PC, Baldo BA, Fisher MM. Anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2001;15:684–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Roelofse JA, van der Bijl P. An anaphylactic reaction to protamine sulfate. Anesth Prog. 1991;38:99–100.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jones DA, Timmis A, Wragg A. Novel drugs for treating angina. BMJ. 2013;347:f4726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chaturvedi A, Singh Y, Chaturvedi H, Thawani V, Singla S, Parihar D. Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of ivabradine and ranolazine in patients of chronic stable angina pectoris. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2013;4:33–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esen Özkaya
    • 1
  • Kurtuluş Didem Yazganoğlu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dermatology and VenereologyIstanbul University Istanbul Medical FacultyIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations