Alzheimer’s Disease: Clinical Aspects and Treatments

Chapter

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia with aging. The early stages of AD are characterized by short-term memory loss. Once the disease progresses, patients experience difficulties in sense of direction, oral communication, calculation, ability to learn, and cognitive thinking. In addition, patients may develop language deficits, depression, aggressive behavior, and psychosis during the late stages, and eventually they need total care from caregivers. Currently diagnosis of AD is based either on clinical presentation or on biological biomarkers, in particular radiological and cerebrospinal fluid Amyloid, tau and phospho-tau levels. Here, the main clinical aspects and diagnostic tools for AD are revised; atypical AD presentations and possible diagnostic pitfalls are also discussed.

Keywords

Alzheimer’s disease Biomarkers Neurodegeneration 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurology Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and TransplantationUniversity of Milan, Fondazione Cà Granda, IRCCS Ospedale PoliclinicoMilanItaly

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