Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation: The Robotic Cryo-Maze

  • Evelio Rodriguez
  • Harold G. RobertsJr.
  • W. Randolph ChitwoodJr.


The Cox-Maze III operation is the gold standard in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. With the advent of different energy sources (radiofrequency, microwave, and cryothermy) and less invasive approaches (i.e. minimally invasive access and different lesion sets) have been tried at different centers with lesser rates of sinus rhythm restoration when compared to the Cox-Maze III. At our institution we have attempted to reproduce the Cox-Maze III without sacrificing the lesion set while combining the robot assisted minimal access techniques with early results similar to the Cox-Maze III procedure.


Atrial fibrillation MAZE Cryo Cryothermy CryoMaze 


  1. 1.
    Cheema FH, Weisberg JS, Khalid J, Roberts HG. Warm beating heart robotic endoscopic Cox-Cryomaze: an approach for treating atrial fibrillation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87:966–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moten SC, Rodriguez E, Cook RC, Nifong LW, Chitwood Jr WR. New ablation techniques for atrial fibrillation and the minimally invasive cryo-maze procedure in patients with lone atrial fibrillation. Heart Lung Circ. 2007;16 Suppl 3:S88–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rodriguez E, Cook RC, Chu MWA, Chitwood WR. Minimally invasive bi-atrial CryoMaze operation for atrial fibrillation. Op Tech Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;14:208–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evelio Rodriguez
    • 1
  • Harold G. RobertsJr.
    • 2
  • W. Randolph ChitwoodJr.
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Cardiac SurgerySt. Thomas HospitalNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Cardiovascular ServicesFlorida Heart and Vascular Care at AventuraAventuraUSA
  3. 3.Department of Cardiovascular SciencesEast Carolina Heart InstituteGreenvilleUSA

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