Renal Stone Disease



Urinary tract stone disease is common, important and increasing: the lifetime prevalence of stones is ~10 % in developed countries, and it disproportionately affects people of working age. After passage of a first stone, the risk of recurrence is 40 % at 5 years and 75 % at 20 years [1]. The incidence of stone disease has always been higher in certain areas such as the Arabian Gulf countries but is increasing internationally [2, 3]. Some of this is due to improvements in stone detection using CT scanning, but changes in dietary and fluid intake habits [4–7] and increased rates of obesity and metabolic syndrome [7, 8] are more important contributors. The incidence of stones in children has increased by 19 % in the last 10 years, the age at first presentation is reducing, and the traditional male to female ratio of 3:1 is changing to a greater proportion of women.


Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Ureteric Stone Uric Acid Stone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Ben Turney DPhil, MSc, MA, FRCS (Urol), PGDipLATHE

Dariush Douraghi-Zadeh BSc, MB BS, FRCR

Navin Ramachandran BSc, MB BS, MRCP, FRCR

Darrell Allen FRCS (Urol), BSc


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UCL Centre for NephrologyRoyal Free HospitalLondonUK
  2. 2.UCL Centre for NephrologyUCL Royal Free CampusLondonUK

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