Renal Stone Disease

Chapter

Abstract

Urinary tract stone disease is common, important and increasing: the lifetime prevalence of stones is ~10 % in developed countries, and it disproportionately affects people of working age. After passage of a first stone, the risk of recurrence is 40 % at 5 years and 75 % at 20 years [1]. The incidence of stone disease has always been higher in certain areas such as the Arabian Gulf countries but is increasing internationally [2, 3]. Some of this is due to improvements in stone detection using CT scanning, but changes in dietary and fluid intake habits [4–7] and increased rates of obesity and metabolic syndrome [7, 8] are more important contributors. The incidence of stones in children has increased by 19 % in the last 10 years, the age at first presentation is reducing, and the traditional male to female ratio of 3:1 is changing to a greater proportion of women.

Keywords

Obesity Osteoporosis Pancreatitis Proteinuria Gadolinium 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Ben Turney DPhil, MSc, MA, FRCS (Urol), PGDipLATHE

Dariush Douraghi-Zadeh BSc, MB BS, FRCR

Navin Ramachandran BSc, MB BS, MRCP, FRCR

Darrell Allen FRCS (Urol), BSc

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UCL Centre for NephrologyRoyal Free HospitalLondonUK
  2. 2.UCL Centre for NephrologyUCL Royal Free CampusLondonUK

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