In 1898, Councilman described lymphoid and plasma cell infiltrates in the renal interstitium which he termed ‘acute interstitial nephritis’. This arose in the setting of infectious diseases such as diphtheria and scarlet fever. The report specifically states that there was no evidence of local infection. Neutrophils were identified only in the presence of significant tissue necrosis. This contrasted acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) with acute pyelonephritis, caused by ascending bacterial infection. Councilman’s report of AIN includes clinical features recognisable in contemporary practice, such as a relative lack of peripheral oedema in comparison to glomerulonephritis.
KeywordsAcute Kidney Injury Renal Biopsy Interstitial Nephritis Renal Tubular Acidosis Aristolochic Acid
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