Situating Cultural Technologies Outdoors: Empathy in the Design of Mobile Interpretation of Rock Art in Rural Britain
Mobile applications are presently at the forefront of interpreting outdoor historical and archaeological sites. This chapter discusses the methodological approach adopted in the Rock art mobile project (RAMP) which addresses the challenge of designing and delivering mobile interpretation at three Neolithic and Early Bronze Age rock art areas in Northumberland, UK. RAMP proposes a departure from the more traditional design approaches of delivering scientific content in the form of an archaeological mobile guide. It acknowledges that rock art interpretation requires a ‘design space’, which facilitates empathy between users and designers, and allows the existing archaeological content, the public’s fascination with the ‘cryptic’ meaning of the rock art sites and the technological, environmental and personal situation of the user to be explored and to inspire technological development.
KeywordsExperience-centred design Mobile Digital interpretation Design methods User experience Outdoors
RAMP was supported by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), UK, AH/H037608/1. We would like to thank all participants who attended our workshops, and the local services in Wooler and Rothbury for their hospitality. Figure 10.2 is included courtesy of England’s Rock Art.
- AdMob (2010) AdMob Mobile Metrics Report 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2011, from http://www.slideshare.net/admobmobile/ad-mob-mobilemetricsapr10.
- Barnett, T., & Sharpe, K. (Eds.). (2010). Carving a future for British rock art: New directions for research, management and presentation. Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
- Beckensall, S. (2010). Prehistoric rock art in Britain. Stroud: Amberley Publishing.Google Scholar
- Beeharee, A. K., & Steed, A. (2006). A natural wayfinding: Exploiting photos in pedestrian navigation systems: Proceedings of the 8th conference on human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services (MobileHCI ‘06), (p. 81). Espoo: ACM.Google Scholar
- Bernstein, S. (2010). Brooklyn museum mobile web on iPhone and Droid, July 27, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2011. from http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/community/blogosphere/2010/07/27/brooklyn-museum-mobile-web-on-iphone-and-droid/.
- Beyer, H., & Holtzblatt, K. (1997). Contextual design: Defining customer-centered systems. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman.Google Scholar
- Botturi, L., Inversini, A., & Di Maria, A. (2009). The city treasure. mobile games for learning cultural heritage. In: J. Trant & T. Bearman (Eds.), Museums and the Web 2009: Proceedings, Indianapolis, 2009. Archives & Museum Informatics, Toronto. Retrieved February 6, 2011. from http://www.archimuse.com/mw2009/papers/botturi/botturi.html.
- Dourish, P. (2006). Implications for design: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI’06), Montréal, 2006 (p. 541). New York: ACM.Google Scholar
- Doyle, J., & Doyle, M. W. (2010). Mixing social glue with brick and mortar: Experiments using the mobile web to connect people, objects, and museums. In J. Trant, & D. Bearman (Eds.), Museums and the Web 2010: Proceedings, Denver, 2010. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics. Retrieved February 6, 2011. from http://www.archimuse.com/mw2010/papers/doyle/doyle.html.
- Dutton, W. H., Helsper, E. J., & Gerber, M. M. (2009). The Internet in Britain 2009. Oxford: Oxford Internet Institute.Google Scholar
- Forbes, T. (2010). Web apps vs iPhone apps for museum content, February 28, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2011. from http://blog.tedforbes.com/web-apps-vs-iphone-apps-for-museum-content/.
- Gaver, W., Beaver, J., & Benford, S. (2003). Ambiguity as a resource for design. Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (CHI ‘03), Ft. Lauderdale (p. 233). Florida, New York: ACM.Google Scholar
- Giaccardi, E., Eden, H., & Fischer, G. (2006). The silence of the lands: Promoting the virtual museum as a place of cultural negotiation: Proceedings of the New Heritage Forum. Hong Kong, March 13–15, 2006.Google Scholar
- Graham, H., Mason, R., & Newman, A. (2009). Literature review: Historic environment, sense of place, and social capital, Commissioned for English Heritage. International Centre for Cultural and Heritage Studies (ICCHS) Newcastle upon Tyne: Newcastle University.Google Scholar
- Koskinen, I., Battarbee, K., & Mattelmäki, T. (2003). Empathic design, user experience in product design. Helsinki: IT Press.Google Scholar
- Leonard, D., & Rayport, J. F. (1997). Spark innovation through empathic design. Harvard Business Review, 75, 102–115.Google Scholar
- Malpas, J. (2008). Cultural heritage in the age of new media. In Y. Kalay, T. Kvan, & J. Affleck (Eds.), New heritage: New media and cultural heritage (pp. 13–26). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Manovich, L. (2001). The language of new media. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Mattelmäki, T., & Battarbee, K. (2002). Empathy probes: Proceedings of Participatory Design Conference (PDC 2002) (pp. 266–271). Malmo, Sweden: CPSR.Google Scholar
- Mazel, A. D., & Ayestaran, H. (2010). Visiting Northumberland rock art virtually: The Beckensall archive analysed. In T. Barnett & K. Sharpe (Eds.), Carving a future for British rock art (pp. p140–p150). Oxford: Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
- Mazel, A., Nash, G., & Chippendale, C. (Eds.). (2007). Art as metaphor: The prehistoric rock-art of Britain. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
- Morris, R. W. B. (1979). The prehistoric art of galloway and the Isle of man. Poole: Blandford Press.Google Scholar
- Parry, R. (2008). Afterword: The future in our hands? Putting potential into practice. In L. Tallon & K. Walker (Eds.), Digital technologies and the museum experience: Handheld guides and other media (pp. 179–193). Berkeley: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
- Pfeifer, T., Savage, P., & Robinson, B. (2009). Managing the Culloden battlefield invisible mobile guidance experience: Proceedings of the 6th international workshop on Managing ubiquitous communications and services (MUCS ‘09), Barcelona, 2009 (p. 51). New York: ACM.Google Scholar
- Sharpe, K., Barnett, T., & Rushton, S. (2008). The prehistoric rock art of England: Recording, managing and enjoying our carved heritage. English Heritage, Northumberland County Council and Durham County Council.Google Scholar
- Smith-Milne, D. (2008). Maximising the contribution of heritage to the North East regional economic strategy and North East tourism strategy tribal group. Newcastle upon Tyne: One NorthEast.Google Scholar
- Suchman, L. (1987). Plans and situated actions: The problem of human-machine communication. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Tallon, L. (2011). The museum and mobile online survey 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2013, from http://www.museums-mobile.org/survey/.
- Tallon, L. (2013). Mobile strategy in 2013: An analysis of the annual museums and mobile survey 2013. Retrieved August 1, 2013, from http://www.museums-mobile.org/survey/.
- Tarasoff, T., Hutcheson, M., & Rhin C (2009) GPS-triggered location-based technologies at Parks Canada: The Explora Project. In J. Trant, & D. Bearman (Eds.) Museums and the web 2009: Proceedings, Indianapolis, 2009. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics. Retrieved February 6, 2011, from http://www.archimuse.com/mw2009/papers/tarasoff/tarasoff.html.
- Tuan, Y. (1974). Topophilia: A study of environmental perception, attitudes, and values. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.Google Scholar
- Vlahakis, V., Ioannidis, M., & Karigiannis, J et al. (2002). Archeoguide: an augmented reality guide for archaeological sites. Computer Graphics and Applications 22(5), 52–60.Google Scholar
- Wenig, D., & Malaka, R. (2010). Interaction with combinations of maps and images for pedestrian navigation and virtual exploration: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on human computer interaction with mobile devices and services (MobileHCI ‘10), Lisbon (p. 377). New York: ACM.Google Scholar
- Wright, P., & McCarthy, J. (2008). Empathy and experience in HCI: Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (CHI ‘08), Florence (p. 637). New York: ACM.Google Scholar