Coronary Artery Bypass Graft, Valvular, and Advanced Heart Failure Surgeries in Women

  • Naila Choudhary
  • Leway Chen


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in men and women. An estimated 83.6 million American adults (>1 in 3) have one or more types of cardiovascular diseases. In 2010, an estimated 7.6 million inpatient cardiovascular operations and procedures were performed in the United States; 4.4 million were performed on men, and 3.2 million were performed on women [1]. In clinical trials on cardiovascular diseases, women are generally under-represented, raising potential concerns for bias. In clinical trials used to support 2007 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for CVD prevention in women, women represented only one third of patients despite similar prevalence of disease in men and women. Only 31 % of primary trial publications specifically reported results in women. Representation of women was lowest among trials for heart failure (29 %) and CAD (25 %) [2].


Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Left Ventricular Assist Device Ventricular Assist Device Advanced Heart Failure Mitral Valve Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of CardiologyUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA

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