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Colorectal Surgery

  • Bruce Waxman
  • Brendon J. Coventry
  • David Wattchow
  • Clifford Ko
Chapter
Part of the Surgery: Complications, Risks and Consequences book series (SCRC)

Abstract

Colorectal surgery is a major part of general surgical and acute emergency surgical practice and is usually considered part of general surgical training in most countries. Right hemicolectomy and segmental resections are generally considered within the capability of many trained acute and elective general and rural surgeons; however, lower and more complex colonic and rectal surgical procedures, and in particular restorative reconstructions, are among the most difficult, unforgiving, and dangerous operations, with significant risk of leakage, infection, and severe sepsis. Appendicitis is a common problem and appendectomy has the reputation of being either the easiest of abdominal operations or the most difficult. Specialized units may reduce the risk of complications and offer improvement in both mortality and economic indicators. This chapter provides information concerning complications, risks, and consequences of colorectal surgical procedures. For associated or other procedures, refer to the relevant chapter and volume.

Keywords

Small Bowel Obstruction Loop Ileostomy Parastomal Hernia Ureteric Injury Situs Inversus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Further Reading, References, and Resources

Rigid Sigmoidoscopy (and/or Rectal Biopsy)

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Colonoscopy

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Open Appendectomy

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Laparoscopic Appendectomy

  1. Carbonell AM, Burns JM, Lincourt AE, Harold KL. Outcomes of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy. Am Surg. 2004;70(9):759–65. Discussion 765–6.Google Scholar
  2. Cox MR, McCall JL, Toouli J, Padbury RT, Wilson TG, Wattchow DA, Langcake M. Prospective randomized comparison of open versus laparoscopic appendectomy in men. World J Surg. 1996;20(3):263–6.Google Scholar
  3. DesGroseilliers S, Fortin M, Lokanathan R, Khoury N, Mutch D. Laparoscopic appendectomy versus open appendectomy: retrospective assessment of 200 patients. Can J Surg. 1995;38(2):178–82.Google Scholar
  4. Ellis H. Clinical anatomy. 6th ed. Blackwell Scientific Pty Ltd; 1980.Google Scholar
  5. Frazee RC, Roberts JW, Symmonds RE, Snyder SK, Hendricks JC, Smith RW, Custer 3rd MD, Harrison JB. A prospective randomized trial comparing open versus laparoscopic appendectomy. Ann Surg. 1994;219(6):725–8. Discussion 728–31.Google Scholar
  6. Golub R, Siddiqui F, Pohl D. Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: a metaanalysis. J Am Coll Surg. 1998;186(5):545–53.Google Scholar
  7. Gupta R, Sample C, Bamehriz F, Birch DW. Infectious complications following laparoscopic appendectomy. Can J Surg. 2006;49(6):397–400.Google Scholar
  8. Hansen JB, Smithers BM, Schache D, Wall DR, Miller BJ, Menzies BL. Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: prospective randomized trial. World J Surg. 1996;20(1):17–20. Discussion 21.Google Scholar
  9. Hoehne F, Ozaeta M, Sherman B, Miani P, Taylor E. Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: is the postoperative infectious complication rate different? Am Surg. 2005;71(10):813–5.Google Scholar
  10. Huang MT, Wei PL, Wu CC, Lai IR, Chen RJ, Lee WJ. Needlescopic, laparoscopic, and open appendectomy: a comparative study. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2001;11(5):306–12. Erratum in: Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2002;12(4).Google Scholar
  11. Jamieson GG. The anatomy of general surgical operations. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2006.Google Scholar
  12. Kapischke M, Tepel J, Bley K. Laparoscopic appendicectomy is associated with a lower complication rate even during the introductory phase. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2004;389(6):517–23.Google Scholar
  13. Katkhouda N, Friedlander MH, Grant SW, Achanta KK, Essani R, Paik P, Velmahos G, Campos G, Mason R, Mavor E. Intraabdominal abscess rate after laparoscopic appendectomy. Am J Surg. 2000;180(6):456–9. Discussion 460–1.Google Scholar
  14. Katkhouda N, Mason RJ, Towfigh S, Gevorgyan A, Essani R. Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: a prospective randomized double-blind study. Ann Surg. 2005;242(3):439–48. Discussion 448–50.Google Scholar
  15. Kazemier G, de Zeeuw GR, Lange JF, Hop WC, Bonjer HJ. Laparoscopic vs open appendectomy. A randomized clinical trial. Surg Endosc. 1997;11(4):336–40.Google Scholar
  16. Khan MN, Fayyad T, Cecil TD, Moran BJ. Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: the risk of postoperative infectious complications. JSLS. 2007;11(3):363–7.Google Scholar
  17. Klingler A, Henle KP, Beller S, Rechner J, Zerz A, Wetscher GJ, Szinicz G. Laparoscopic appendectomy does not change the incidence of postoperative infectious complications. Am J Surg. 1998;175(3):232–5.Google Scholar
  18. Kluiber RM, Hartsman B. Laparoscopic appendectomy: a comparison with open appendectomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39(9):1008–11.Google Scholar
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  20. Marzouk M, Khater M, Elsadek M, Abdelmoghny A. Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy: a prospective comparative study of 227 patients. Surg Endosc. 2003;17(5):721–4.Google Scholar
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Colostomy and Mucous Fistula

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Loop Colostomy

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Right Hemicolectomy (Colostomy and Ileostomy Without Primary Anastomosis)

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Right Hemicolectomy (with Primary Ileocolonic Anastomosis)

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Elective Hartmann’s Procedure

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Emergency Hartmann’s Procedure

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Segmental Colonic Resection (Colostomy Without Primary Anastomosis)

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  6. Harris DA, Egbeare D, Jones S, Benjamin H, Woodward A, Foster ME. Complications and mortality following stoma formation. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2005;87(6):427–31.Google Scholar
  7. Jamieson GG. The anatomy of general surgical operations. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2006.Google Scholar
  8. Konishi T, Watanabe T, Kishimoto J, Nagawa H. Elective colon and rectal surgery differ in risk factors for wound infection: results of prospective surveillance. Ann Surg. 2006;244(5):758–63.Google Scholar
  9. Ret Dávalos ML, De Cicco C, D'Hoore A, De Decker B, Koninckx PR. Outcome after rectum or sigmoid resection: a review for gynecologists. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2007;14(1):33–8. Review.Google Scholar
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Segmental Colonic Resection (with Primary Colonic Anastomosis)

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Anterior Resection (Rectosigmoidectomy) (with or Without Loop Ileostomy)

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Restoration of Continuity

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Abdominoperineal Resection of the Rectum

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Total Procto-Colectomy and Restorative Ileo-Anal (or Ilio-Rectal) Pouch Reconstruction

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  4. Cozzi P. Improving cancer control and recovery of potency after radical prostatectomy: nerve sparing versus nerve resection with grafting. ANZ J Surg. 2008;78:834–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  6. Jamieson GG. The anatomy of general surgical operations. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2006.Google Scholar
  7. Kanellos I, Vasiliadis K, Angelopoulos S, Tsachalis T, Pramateftakis MG, Mantzoros I, Betsis D. Anastomotic leakage following anterior resection for rectal cancer. Tech Coloproctol. 2004;8 Suppl 1:s79–81.Google Scholar
  8. Law WI, Chu KW, Ho JW, Chan CW. Risk factors for anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision. Am J Surg. 2000;179(2):92–6.Google Scholar
  9. Lyall A, Mc Adam TK, Townend J, Loudon MA. Factors affecting anastomotic complications following anterior resection in rectal cancer. Colorectal Dis. 2007;9(9):801–7.Google Scholar
  10. Matthiessen P, Hallböök O, Andersson M, Rutegård J, Sjödahl R. Risk factors for anastomotic leakage after anterior resection of the rectum. Colorectal Dis. 2004;6(6):462–9.Google Scholar
  11. Rodríguez-Ramírez SE, Uribe A, Ruiz-García EB, Labastida S, Luna-Pérez P. Risk factors for anastomotic leakage after preoperative chemoradiation therapy and low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision for locally advanced rectal cancer. Rev Invest Clin. 2006;58(3):204–10.Google Scholar
  12. Semmens JB, Platell C, Threlfall TJ, Holman CD. A population-based study of the incidence, mortality and outcomes in patients following surgeryfor colorectal cancer in Western Australia. ANZ J Surg. 2000;70:11–8.Google Scholar
  13. Vermeulen J, Lange JF, van der Harst E. Impaired anastomotic healing after preoperative radiotherapy followed by anterior resection for treatment of rectal carcinoma. S Afr J Surg. 2006;44(1):12. 14–6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce Waxman
    • 1
  • Brendon J. Coventry
    • 2
  • David Wattchow
    • 3
  • Clifford Ko
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Academic Surgical UnitMonash University, Monash Health and Southern Clinical SchoolDandenongAustralia
  2. 2.Discipline of SurgeryRoyal Adelaide Hospital, University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryFlinders Medical CentreBedford ParkAustralia
  4. 4.Division of Research and Optimal Patient CareAmerican College of SurgeonsChicagoUSA
  5. 5.Department of Colorectal SurgeryUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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