Failed Instability Surgery

  • Alessandro Castagna
  • Raffaele GarofaloEmail author
  • Eugenio Cesari


Glenohumeral instability is very common in the general population and many surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of this condition, each with different indications according to the pathological findings and patient’s age, gender, and activity level. Despite the evolution in knowledge of the pathology and surgical techniques treating shoulder instability, a certain risk of failure, reported in a percentage between 4 and 30 %, still exists after primary surgical stabilization: arthroscopic, open or with bone block procedure. Nevertheless, the percentage of failure could be even higher when not only a recurrence of instability (dislocation or subluxation) but also a painful or a stiff shoulder is considered as a failure.


Rotator Cuff Shoulder Instability Shoulder Dislocation Rotator Interval Glenohumeral Ligament 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandro Castagna
    • 1
  • Raffaele Garofalo
    • 2
    Email author
  • Eugenio Cesari
    • 2
  1. 1.Shoulder and Elbow UnitHumanitas Institute IRCCSRozzano (MI)Italy
  2. 2.Shoulder and Elbow Surgery DepartmentHumanitas GavazzeniBergamoItaly

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