Advertisement

Failed Instability Surgery

  • Alessandro Castagna
  • Raffaele GarofaloEmail author
  • Eugenio Cesari
Chapter

Abstract

Glenohumeral instability is very common in the general population and many surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of this condition, each with different indications according to the pathological findings and patient’s age, gender, and activity level. Despite the evolution in knowledge of the pathology and surgical techniques treating shoulder instability, a certain risk of failure, reported in a percentage between 4 and 30 %, still exists after primary surgical stabilization: arthroscopic, open or with bone block procedure. Nevertheless, the percentage of failure could be even higher when not only a recurrence of instability (dislocation or subluxation) but also a painful or a stiff shoulder is considered as a failure.

Keywords

Rotator Cuff Shoulder Instability Shoulder Dislocation Rotator Interval Glenohumeral Ligament 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Boileau P, Villalba M, Héry JY, Balg F, Ahrens P, Neyton L. Risk factors for recurrence of shoulder instability after arthroscopic Bankart repair. J Bone Joint Surg. 2006;88A:1755–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Castagna A, Garofalo R, Melito G, Markopoulos N, De Giorgi S. The role of arthroscopy in the revision of failed Latarjet procedures. Chir Organi Mov. 2010;94:S47–55.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Franceschi F, Longo UG, Ruzzini L, Rizzello G, Maffulli N, Denaro V. Arthroscopic salvage of failed arthroscopic Bankart repair: a prospective study with a minimum follow-up of 4 years. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:1330–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hawkins RH, Hawkins RJ. Failed anterior reconstruction for the shoulder instability. J Bone Joint Surg. 1985;67B:709–14.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Molé D, Villanueva E, Caudane H, De Gasperi M. Results of more 10 years experience of open procedures. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 2000;86:111–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tonino PM, Gerber C, Itoi E, Porcellini G, Sonnabend D, Walch G. Complex shoulder disorders: evaluation and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2009;17:125–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barnes CJ, Getelman MH, Snyder SJ. Results of arthroscopic revision anterior shoulder reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:715–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Castagna A, Garofalo R, Melito G, Markopoulos N, De Giorgi S. The role of arthroscopy in the revision of failed Latarjet procedures. Musculoskelet Surg. 2010;94:S47–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Itoi E, Lee S, Berglund LJ, Berge LL, An K. The effect of a glenoid defect on anteroinferior stability of the shoulder after Bankart repair: a cadaveric study. J Bone Joint Surg. 2000;82A:35–46.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burkhart SS, De Beer JF, Tehrany AM, Parten PM. Quantifying glenoid bone loss arthroscopically in shoulder instability. Arthroscopy. 2002;18:488–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sekiya JK, Wickwire AC, Stehle JH, Debski RE. Hill-Sachs defects and repair using osteoarticular allograft transplantation: biomechanical analysis using a joint compression model. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:2459–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sekiya JK, Jolly J, Debski RE. The effect of a Hill-Sachs defect on glenohumeral translations, in situ capsular forces, and bony contact forces. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:388–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Burkhart SS, De Beer JF. Traumatic glenohumeral bone defects and their relationship to failure of arthroscopic Bankart repairs: significance of the inverted-pear glenoid and the humeral engaging Hill-Sachs lesion. Arthroscopy. 2000;16:677–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Balg F, Boileau P. The instability severity index score. A simple pre-operative score to select patients for arthroscopic or open shoulder stabilisation. J Bone Joint Surg. 2007;89B:1470–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yamamoto N, Itoi E, Abe H, Minagawa H, Seki N, Shimada Y, et al. Contact between the glenoid and the humeral head in abduction, external rotation, horizontal extension: a new concept of glenoid track. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2007;16:649–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rowe CR, Zarins B, Ciullo JV. Recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder after surgical repair. J Bone Joint Surg. 1984;66A:159–68.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bigliani LU, Pollock RG, Soslowsky LJ, Flatow EL, Pawluk RJ, Mow VC. Tensile properties of the inferior glenohumeral ligament. J Orthop Res. 1992;10:187–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Levine WN, Arroyo JS, Pollock RG, Flatow EL, Bigliani LU. Open revision stabilization surgery for recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. Am J Sports Med. 2000;28:156–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fujii Y, Yoneda M, Wakitani S, Hayashida K. Histologic analysis of bony Bankart lesions in recurrent anterior instability of shoulder. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2006;15:218–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Castagna A, Snyder SJ, Conti M, Borroni M, Massazza G, Garofalo R. Posterior humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament: a clinical review of 9 cases. Arthroscopy. 2007;23:809–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bokor DJ, Conboy VB, Olson C. Anterior instability of the glenohumeral joint with humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament. A review of 41 cases. J Bone Joint Surg. 1999;81B:93–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gagey OJ, Gagey N. The hyperabduction test. J Bone Joint Surg. 2001;83B:69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sachs RA, Williams B, Stone ML, Paxton L, Kuney M. Open Bankart repair: correlation of results with postoperative subscapularis function. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33:1458–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Scheibel M, Nikulka C, Dick A, Schroeder RJ, Popp AG, Haas NP. Structural integrity and clinical function of the subscapularis musculotendinous unit after arthroscopic and open shoulder stabilization. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35:1153–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bishop JY, Jones GL, Rerko MA, Donaldson C. 3D CT is the most reliable imaging modality when quantifying glenoid bone loss. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013;471:1251–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gartsman GM, Roddey TS, Hammerman SM. Arthroscopic treatment of anterior-inferior glenohumeral instability: two to five-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg. 2000;82A:991–1003.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Porcellini G, Campi F, Pegreffi F, Castagna A, Paladini P. Predisposing factors for recurrent shoulder dislocations after arthroscopic treatment. J Bone Joint Surg. 2009;91A:2537–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hovelius L, Augustini BG, Fredin H, Johansson O, Norlin R, Thorling J. Primary anterior dislocation of shoulder in the young patients, A ten-year prospective study. J Bone Joint Surg. 1996;78A:1677–84.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Malicky DM, Kuhn JE, Frisancho JC, Lindholm SR, Raz JA, Soslowsky LJ. Neer Award 2001: non recoverable strain fields of the anteroinferior glenohumeral capsule under subluxation. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2002;11:529–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tauber M, Resch H, Forstner R, Raffl M, Schauer J. Reasons for failure after surgical repair of anterior instability. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2004;13:279–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bartl C, Schumann K, Paul J, Vogt S, Imhoff AB. Arthroscopic capsulolabral revision repair for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:511–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Provencher MT, Arciero RA, Burkhart SS, Levine WN, Ritting AW, Romeo AA. Key factors in primary and revision surgery for shoulder instability. Instr Course Lect. 2010;59:227–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Arce G, Arcuri F, Ferro D, Pereira E. Is selective arthroscopic revision beneficial for treating recurrent anterior shoulder instability? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;479:965–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mologne TS, Provencher MT, Menzel KA, Vachon TA, Dewing CB. Arthroscopic stabilization in patients with an inverted pear glenoid: results in patients with bone loss of the anterior glenoid. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35:1276–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Porcellini G, Campi F, Paladini P. Arthroscopic approach to acute bony Bankart lesion. Arthroscopy. 2002;18:764–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Boileau P, Richou J, Lisai A, Chuinard C, Bicknell RT. The role of arthroscopy in revision of failed open anterior stabilization of the shoulder. Arthroscopy. 2009;25:1075–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Creighton RA, Romeo AA, Brown Jr FM, Hayden JK, Verma NN. Revision arthroscopic shoulder instability repair. Arthroscopy. 2007;23:703–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Patel RV, Apostle K, Leith JM, Regan WD. Revision arthroscopic capsulolabral reconstruction for recurrent instability of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg. 2008;90B:1462–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bedi A, Ryu RK. Revision arthroscopic Bankart repair. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2010;18:130–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Burkhart SS, De Beer JF, Barth JR, Cresswell T, Roberts C, Richards DP. Results of modified Latarjet reconstruction in patients with anteroinferior instability and significant bone loss. Arthroscopy. 2007;23:1033–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hovelius L, Sandstrom B, Sundgren K, Saebo M. One hundred eighteen Bristow- Latarjet repairs for recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder prospectively followed for fifteen years: study I – clinical results. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2004;13:509–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schmid SL, Farshad M, Catanzaro S, Gerber C. The Latarjet procedure for the treatment of recurrence of anterior instability of the shoulder after operative repair. A retrospective case series of forty-nine consecutive patients. J Bone Joint Surg. 2012;94A:e75.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Di Silvestro MD, Lo IK, Mohtadi N, Pletsch K, Boorman RS. Patients undergoing stabilization surgery for recurrent, traumatic anterior shoulder instability commonly have restricted passive external rotation. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2007;16:255–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Curtis A, Snyder S, Delpizzo W, Ferkel R, Karzel R. Complications of shoulder arthroscopy. Arthroscopy. 1992;8:395–401.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Muller D, Landsieldl F. Arthroscopy of the shoulder joint: a minimal invasive and harmless procedure? Arthroscopy. 2000;16:425–30.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Castagna A, Garofalo R, Conti M, Randelli M. Reverse HAGL: a possible complication of a tight anterior gleno-humeral stabilization. Chir Organi Mov. 2005;90:201–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandro Castagna
    • 1
  • Raffaele Garofalo
    • 2
    Email author
  • Eugenio Cesari
    • 2
  1. 1.Shoulder and Elbow UnitHumanitas Institute IRCCSRozzano (MI)Italy
  2. 2.Shoulder and Elbow Surgery DepartmentHumanitas GavazzeniBergamoItaly

Personalised recommendations