Bone Substitution in Spine Fusion: The Past, the Present, and the Future

Chapter

Abstract

Bone fusion represents a challenge in orthopedics practice, in particular when a pathological condition, such as non-union fractures, osteomyelitis, critical size defects, may imply a reduced biological response. This is why recently basic research has been addressing this issue and new and innovative products have been introduced into the clinical practice. Spinal fusion can be defined as the bony union between two vertebral bodies after surgical treatment. Each year in the USA, more than 200,000 spine fusions are performed. From 1993 to 2001, the rate of cervical spine fusion increased to 433 %, while the rate of thoracolumbar fusion increased from 52 to 352 %. Despite the advances in surgical techniques and the increasing use of stabilization systems, the incidence of nonunion for lumbar fusions remains high (10–40 %) [1, 2].

Keywords

Porosity Toxicity Zirconium Torque Chitosan 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedics and TraumatologyUniversità Cattolica del Sacro Cuore,RomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Anatomy and Cell BiologyUniversità Cattolica del Sacro CuoreRomeItaly

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