Breast Carcinoma

  • Derek C. Allen


Breast Carcinoma: this chapter outlines the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation, investigations, treatments and prognosis of cancer at this anatomical site. These features are correlated with the core data that are required to make the corresponding histopathology reports of a consistently high quality, available in an appropriate timeframe, and clinically relevant to patient management and prognosis. Summary details of the common cancers given at this site include: gross description, histological types, tumour grade/differentiation, extent of local tumour spread, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node involvement, and the status of excision margins. Current WHO Classifications of Malignant Tumours and TNM7 are referenced. Notes are provided on other associated pathology, contemporary use of immunohistochemistry, updates on the role of evolving molecular tests, and the use of these ancillary techniques as biomarkers in diagnosis, and prediction of prognosis and treatment response. A summary is given of the commoner non-carcinoma malignancies that are encountered at this site in diagnostic practice.


Sentinel Lymph Node Axillary Lymph Node Needle Core Biopsy Lobular Carcinoma Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Derek C. Allen
    • 1
  1. 1.Histopathology LaboratoryBelfast City HospitalBelfastUK

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