De-stiffening Strategy, Sodium Balance, and Blockade of the Renin–Angiotensin System

  • Athanase D. ProtogerouEmail author
  • Michel E. Safar
  • Gerard E. Plante
  • Jacques Blacher


Arterial stiffening, especially of the large elastic arteries, is a fundamental vascular aging trait, which is, however, accelerated in the presence of genetic and environmental factors. It is an early marker of subclinical arterial disease but also a well-established biomarker of clinical cardiovascular disease events and cardiovascular disease mortality. Preventive strategies calcium channel blockade and allopurinol, a careful individualized de-stiffening strategy on the basis of sodium balance, in combination with the renin–angiotensin system blockade, appears to be the currently available optimal strategy.


Sodium balance Salt restriction diet Diuretics Renin–angiotensin system blockade Arterial stiffness 


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© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Athanase D. Protogerou
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michel E. Safar
    • 2
  • Gerard E. Plante
    • 3
  • Jacques Blacher
    • 2
  1. 1.Cardiovascular Research Laboratory and Hypertension Center, First Department of Propedeutic and Internal Medicine“Laiko” Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of MedicineDiagnosis and Therapeutics Center, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris Descartes UniversityParisFrance
  3. 3.Institut de Pharmacologie, Universitye de SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada

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