Skip to main content

Cooperation in Delay Tolerant Networks

  • Chapter
Next-Generation Wireless Technologies

Part of the book series: Computer Communications and Networks ((CCN))

Abstract

The delay tolerant networking architecture was proposed for the networks where the typical assumptions made for the Internet fails. One of the primary characteristics of such networks is the intermittent connectivity among the nodes, resulting in the lack of end-to-end communication paths. Unlike the Internet, mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) and other forms of traditional networks, message transfers in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) follow the store-carry-and-forward paradigm. It is, therefore, crucial that the nodes in DTNs cooperate among themselves to help the messages reach their respective destinations. Such favorable environments, however, are not obtained in the presence of selfish/malicious nodes. In this chapter, we present a survey of the different schemes proposed in the literature to enforce cooperation in DTNs. We identify the different aspects on which nodes in DTNs could cooperate, and review the different schemes proposed for the same. Specifically, we explore in detail the incentive-based and game theory inspired mechanisms adopted for the same. To the best of our knowledge, no survey on cooperation in DTNs has been presented so far.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Warthman, F. (2003, Mar.). Delay-tolerant networks (DTNs): a tutorial v1.1. http://www.dtnrg.org/docs/tutorials/warthman-1.1.pdf. Accessed 08 Oct. 2012.

  2. Huffaker, B., Fomenkov, M., Plummer, D., Moore, D., & Claffy, K. (2002). Distance metrics in the Internet. In IEEE international telecommunications symposium (ITS), Sep. 2002 (pp. 200–202). Brazil: IEEE Press.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Cerf, V. G. (2008). An interplanetary internet. Space Operations Communicator, 5(4).

    Google Scholar 

  4. Mars science laboratory: data rates/returns. http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/mission/communicationwithearth/data/. Accessed 08 Oct. 2012.

  5. Underwater acoustic modem models. http://www.link-quest.com/html/models1.htm. Accessed 08 Oct. 2012.

  6. Fall, K. (2003). A delay-tolerant network architecture for challenged internets. In Proceedings of the 2003 conference on applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications (SIGCOMM ’03) (pp. 27–34). New York: ACM.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  7. Cerf, V., Burleigh, S., Hooke, A., Torgerson, L., Durst, R., Scott, K., Travis, E., & Weiss, H. Interplanetary internet (ipn): architectural definition. https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-irtf-ipnrg-arch-00. Accessed 31 Oct. 2012.

  8. Akyildiz, I. F., Pompili, D., & Melodia, T. (2005). Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges. Ad Hoc Networks, 3(3), 257–279.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Khabbaz, M., Assi, C., & Fawaz, W. (2012). Disruption-tolerant networking: a comprehensive survey on recent developments and persisting challenges. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 14(2), 607–640.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Huang, C.-M., Lan, K.-c., & Tsai, C.-Z. (2008). A survey of opportunistic networks. In Proceedings of the 22nd international conference on advanced information networking and applications—workshops (AINAW ’08) (pp. 1672–1677). Washington: IEEE Comput. Soc.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Hui, P., Chaintreau, A., Scott, J., Gass, R., Crowcroft, J., & Diot, C. (2005). Pocket switched networks and human mobility in conference environments. In Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCOMM workshop on delay-tolerant networking (WDTN ’05) (pp. 244–251). New York: ACM.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  12. Saha, B. K., & Misra, S. (2012). Could human intelligence enhance communication opportunities in mission-oriented opportunistic networks. In Proceedings of the 1st ACM MOBICOM workshop on mission-oriented wireless sensor networking (ACM MiSeNet ’12), August 2012 (pp. 15–20). New York: ACM.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  13. Johnson, D. B., & Maltz, D. A. (1996). Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks. In T. Imielinski & H. Korth (Eds.), Mobile computing (pp. 153–181). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/johnson96dynamic.html.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  14. Bhunia, C. T., Maity, S., Saha, S., Swanaz, S., & Saha, B. K. (2008). Pre-emptive dynamic source routing: a repaired backup approach and stability based DSR with multiple routes. Journal of Computing and Information Technology, 16(2), 91–99.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Vahdat, A., & Becker, D. (2000). Epidemic routing for partially-connected ad hoc networks. (Tech Report CS-2000-06), Duke University. http://issg.cs.duke.edu/epidemic/epidemic.pdf.

  16. Spyropoulos, T., Psounis, K., & Raghavendra, C. S. (2005). Spray and wait: an efficient routing scheme for intermittently connected mobile networks. In Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCOMM workshop on delay-tolerant networking (WDTN ’05) (pp. 252–259). New York: ACM.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  17. Lindgren, A., Doria, A., & Schelén, O. (2004). Probabilistic routing in intermittently connected networks. In P. Dini, P. Lorenz, & J. Souza (Eds.), Lecture notes in computer science: Vol. 3126. Proceedings of the first international workshop on service assurance with partial and intermittent resources (SAPIR) (pp. 239–254). Berlin: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  18. Scott, K., & Burleigh, S. Bundle protocol specification (Internet RFC 5050), Nov. 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Chen, I.-R., Bao, F., Chang, M., & Cho, J.-H. (2010). Trust management for encounter-based routing in delay tolerant networks. In Global telecommunications conference (GLOBECOM 2010), Dec. 2010 (pp. 1–6). New York: IEEE Press.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Zhu, H., Lin, X., Lu, R., & Shen, X. S. (2008). A secure incentive scheme for delay tolerant networks. In Proc. 3rd international conference on communications and networking in China (ChinaCom).

    Google Scholar 

  21. Shevade, U., Song, H. H., Qiu, L., & Zhang, Y. (2008). Incentive-aware routing in DTNs. In Proceedings of the 16th annual IEEE international conference on network protocols (ICNP 2008).

    Google Scholar 

  22. Zhu, H., Lin, X., Lu, R., Fan, Y., & Shen, X. S. (2009). Smart: a secure multilayer credit-based incentive scheme for delay-tolerant networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 58, 4628–4639.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Chen, B. B., & Chan, M. C. (2010). Mobicent: a credit-based incentive system for disruption tolerant network. In Proceedings of INFOCOM.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Lu, R., Lin, X., Zhu, H., Shen, X. S., & Preiss, B. (2010). Pi: a practical incentive protocol for delay tolerant networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 9(4), 1483–1493.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Mahmoud, M. E., Barua, M., & Shen, X. (2011). Sats: secure data-forwarding scheme for delay-tolerant wireless networks. In GLOBECOM.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Li, Y., Hui, P., Jin, D., Su, L., & Zeng, L. (2010). Evaluating the impact of social selfishness on the epidemic routing in delay tolerant networks. IEEE Communications Letters, 14, 1026–1028.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Wei, L., Zhu, H., Cao, Z., & Shen, X. (2011). Mobiid: a user-centric and social-aware reputation based incentive scheme for delay/disruption tolerant networks. In Proceedings of the 10th international conference on ad-hoc, mobile, and wireless networks, ADHOC-NOW’11 (pp. 177–190). Berlin: Springer. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2032462.2032480.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  28. Zhang, X., Wang, X., Liu, A., Zhang, Q., & Tang, C. (2012). Pri: a practical reputation-based incentive scheme for delay tolerant networks. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, 6(4), 973–988.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Balasubramanian, A., Levine, B. N., & Venkataramani, A. (2007). DTN routing as a resource allocation problem. In Proc. ACM SIGCOMM.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Haas, Z. J., & Small, T. (2006). Evaluating the capacity of resource-constrained DTNs. In Proceedings of the 2006 international conference on wireless communications and mobile computing (IWCMC ’06).

    Google Scholar 

  31. Osborne, M. J. (2003). An introduction to game theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Buttyán, L., Dóra, L., Félegyházi, M., & Vajda, I. (2007). Barter-based cooperation in delay-tolerant personal wireless networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE workshop on autonomic and opportunistic communications (AOC 2007).

    Google Scholar 

  33. Buttyán, L., Dóra, L., Félegyházi, M., & Vajda, I. (2010). Barter trade improves message delivery in opportunistic networks. Ad Hoc Networks, 8, 1–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Yin, L., mei Lu, H., da Cao, Y., & min Gao, J. (2010). Cooperation in delay tolerant networks. In 2nd international conference on signal processing systems (ICSPS).

    Google Scholar 

  35. Niyato, D., Wang, P., Saad, W., & Hjørungnes, A. (2010). Coalition formation games for improving data delivery in delay tolerant networks. In GLOBECOM’10.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Saad, W., Han, Z., Debbah, M., Hjørungnes, A., & Basar, T. (2009). Coalitional game theory for communication networks: a tutorial. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 26, 77–97. arXiv:0905.4057.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Panagakis, A., Vaios, A., & Stavrakakis, I. (2007). On the effects of cooperation in DTNs. In 2nd international conference on communication systems software and middleware (COMSWARE).

    Google Scholar 

  38. Resta, G., & Santi, P. (2009). The effects of node cooperation level on routing performance in delay tolerant networks. In Proceedings IEEE SECON.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Resta, G., & Santi, P. (2012). A framework for routing performance analysis in delay tolerant networks with application to noncooperative networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 23, 2–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Keränen, A., Pitkänen, M., Vuori, M., & Ott, J. (2011). Effect of non-cooperative nodes in mobile DTNs. In World of wireless, mobile and multimedia networks (WoWMoM).

    Google Scholar 

  41. Rhee, I., Shin, M., Hong, S., Lee, K., Kim, S., & Chong, S. (2009). CRAWDAD data set ncsu/mobilitymodels (v. 2009-07-23). http://crawdad.cs.dartmouth.edu/ncsu/mobilitymodels.

  42. Li, Y., Su, G., & Wang, Z. (2012). Evaluating the effects of node cooperation on DTNs routing. AEÜ. International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 66, 62–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Li, Y., Su, L., Jin, D., & Zeng, L. (2011). Performance evaluation of multicasting in energy-constrained DTN with selfish nodes. In Global telecommunications conference (GLOBECOM 2011), Dec. 2011 (pp. 1–5). New York: IEEE Press.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Li, Y., Su, G., Wu, D., Jin, D., Su, L., & Zeng, L. (2011). The impact of node selfishness on multicasting in delay tolerant networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 60(5), 2224–2238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Nguyen, A.-D., Sénac, P., & Diaz, M. (2010). STIgmergy Routing (STIR) for content-centric delay-tolerant networks. In LAWDN—Latin-American workshop on dynamic networks, Buenos Aires, Argentine. http://hal.inria.fr/inria-00531763.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgement

The second author would like to thank TCS for their Fellowship Scheme and generous help, which has partly supported this work.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sudip Misra .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2013 Springer-Verlag London

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Misra, S., Pal, S., Saha, B.K. (2013). Cooperation in Delay Tolerant Networks. In: Chilamkurti, N., Zeadally, S., Chaouchi, H. (eds) Next-Generation Wireless Technologies. Computer Communications and Networks. Springer, London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-5164-7_3

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-5164-7_3

  • Publisher Name: Springer, London

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4471-5163-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4471-5164-7

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics