Musculoskeletal System

  • Graham Hughes
  • Munther A. Khamashta


Orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists see the syndrome – orthopaedists as avascular necrosis and bone fracture and rheumatologists as features in some patients with aPL-positive lupus and Sjogren’s patients.


Avascular Necrosis Spinal Stenosis Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Livedo Reticularis Lumbar Disc Disease 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graham Hughes
    • 1
  • Munther A. Khamashta
    • 2
  1. 1.The London Lupus CentreLondon Bridge HospitalLondonUK
  2. 2.Division of Women’s Health, Graham Hughes Lupus Research LaboratoryKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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