Diagnosis and Classification

  • Graham Hughes
  • Munther A. Khamashta


The diagnosis is based firstly on clinical grounds – the history of migraine and recurrent pregnancy loss, together with thrombosis, should lead to a formal search for aPL (as well as tests for lupus and other autoimmune diseases).

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graham Hughes
    • 1
  • Munther A. Khamashta
    • 2
  1. 1.The London Lupus CentreLondon Bridge HospitalLondonUK
  2. 2.Division of Women’s Health, Graham Hughes Lupus Research LaboratoryKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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