A System Adaptation Framework

  • Xiaolian ZhengEmail author
  • Ben M. Chen
Part of the Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences book series (LNCIS, volume 442)


A system refers to a configuration of components connected together by intertwined relationships which acts as a whole [12]. In the broadest sense of the thinking about systems, “everything is a system” [24]. To illustrate, in engineering, it is always referring to a physical system like a hardware or software framework; in science, a system could be a portion of the universe, a method or an algorithm; in social science, the human organizations, human activities, and artificial societies are also viewed as systems.


Stock Market Internal Model White Noise Input Daily Closing Price Internal Residue 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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