Advertisement

Behavior: Basic Psychology of the User

  • Frank E. RitterEmail author
  • Gordon D. Baxter
  • Elizabeth F. Churchill
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter examines what are described as user behavioral characteristics. These are characteristics that are related to perception in broad terms. The chapter starts by defining some behavioral terms and concepts that are used in this and subsequent chapters. We then describe in detail several aspects of the two main perceptual systems that are involved in interacting with computer-based systems: vision and hearing. For each of these aspects we consider some of the implications they have for system design. We finish by introducing the topic of motivation to help explain why individual users may behave in a particular way when carrying out a task.

Keywords

False Alarm Color Vision Extrinsic Motivation Tuning Fork Display Screen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bowmaker, J. K., & Dartnall, H. J. A. (1980). Visual pigments of rods and cones in a human retina. Journal of Physiology, 298, 501–511.Google Scholar
  2. Catchpole, K., McKeown, J. D., & Withington, D. J. (2004). Localizable auditory warning pulses. Ergonomics, 47(7), 748–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chaiklin, S. (2003). The zone of proximal development in Vygotsky’s analysis of learning and instruction. In A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V. Ageyev, & S. Miller (Eds.), Vygotsky’s educational theory and practice in cultural context (pp. 39–64). Cambridge: Cambridge University.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Csíkszentmihályi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  5. Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18(1), 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Duchowski, A. T. (2007). Eye tracking methodology: Theory and practice. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Findlay, J. M., & Gilchrist, I. D. (2003). Active vision: The psychology of looking and seeing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Friedrich, M. B. (2008). Implementierung von schematischen Denkstrategien in einer höheren Programmiersprache: Erweitern und Testen der vorhandenen Resultate durch Erfassen von zusätzlichen Daten und das Erstellen von weiteren Strategien (Implementing diagrammatic reasoning strategies in a high level language: Extending and testing the existing model results by gathering additional data and creating additional strategies). Faculty of Information Systems and Applied Computer Science, University of Bamberg, Germany.Google Scholar
  9. Galanter, E. (1962). Contemporary psychophysics. In R. Brown, E. Galanter, E. H. Hess, & G. Mandler (Eds.), New directions in psychology (pp. 87–156). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  10. Garner, W. R. (1974). The processing of information and structure. Potomac, MD: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  12. Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., & van de Weijer, J. (2011). Eye tracking: A comprehensive guide to methods and measures. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Kennedy, A., & Baccino, T. (1995). The effects of screen refresh rate on editing operations using a computer mouse pointing device. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A(1), 55–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kubovy, M., & van Valkenburg, D. (2001). Auditory and visual objects. Cognition, 80, 97–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Moore, R. J., & Churchill, E. F. (2011). Computer interaction analysis: Toward an empirical approach to understanding user practice and eye gaze in GUI-based interaction. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 20(6), 497–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Navalpakkam, V., & Churchill, E. F. (in press). Eyetracking: A brief introduction. In J. S. Olson & W. Kellogg (Eds.), Ways of knowing, HCI methods. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Nielsen, J., & Pernice, K. (2010). Eyetracking web usability. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.Google Scholar
  19. Peterson, S. A., & Simon, T. J. (2000). Computational evidence for the subitizing phenomenon as an emergent property of the human cognitive architecture. Cognitive Science, 24(1), 93–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pink, D. H. (2009). Drive. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.Google Scholar
  21. Reingold, E. M., Loschky, L. C., McConkie, G. W., & Stampe, D. M. (2003). Gaze-contingent multiresolution displays: An integrative review. Human Factors, 45(2), 307–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sekuler, R., & Blake, R. (2005). Perception (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  24. Stevens, S. S., & Newman, E. B. (1936). The localization of actual sources of sound. American Journal of Psychology, 48, 297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Strutt, J. W. (Lord Rayleigh, Third Baron of Rayleigh) (1907). On our perception of sound direction. Philosophical Magazine, 13, 214–232.Google Scholar
  26. Swets, J. A. (1973). The relative operating characteristic in psychology. Science, 182, 990–1000.Google Scholar
  27. Swets, J. A., Tanner, W. P., & Birdsall, T. G. (1961). Decision processes in perception. Psychological Review, 68, 301–340.Google Scholar
  28. Treisman, A. M., & Gelade, G. (1980). A feature integration theory of attention. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 97–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wickens, C. D., Hollands, J. G., Banbury, S., & Parasuraman, R. (2014). Engineering psychology and human performance (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson.Google Scholar
  30. Wickens, T. D. (2002). Elementary signal detection theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank E. Ritter
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gordon D. Baxter
    • 2
  • Elizabeth F. Churchill
    • 3
  1. 1.College of ISTThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.School of Computer ScienceUniversity of St AndrewsSt AndrewsUK
  3. 3.eBay Research LabsSan JoseUSA

Personalised recommendations