Advertisement

Septal Defects

  • Wojciech Mazur
  • Marilyn J. Siegel
  • Tomasz Miszalski-Jamka
  • Robert Pelberg
Chapter

Abstract

Atrial septal defects (ASD) are seen in 1 per 1,500 live births and account for 30–40 % of all adult congenital heart disease [1]. There are five basic types of atrial septal defects (Fig. 11.1): (1) secundum ASD, (2) primum ASD, (3) sinus venosus ASD (superior and inferior types), (4) coronary sinus ASD, and (5) common atrium (simultaneous combination of two or more types of atrial septal defect) [2]. See Table 11.1.

Keywords

Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Superior Vena Cava Atrial Septal Defect Endocardial Cushion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Kaplan S. Congenital heart disease in adolescents and adults. natural and postoperative history across age groups. Cardiol Clin. 1993;11:543–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Webb G, Gatzoulis MA. Atrial septal defects in the adult: recent progress and overview. Circulation. 2006;114:1645–53. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.592055.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rajiah P, Renapurkar R, Kanne J. Diagnosis of ostium primum defect at multidetector CT in an adult. J Thorac Imaging. 2009;24:234–6. doi: 10.1097/RTI.0b013e3181a6d0d2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Attenhofer Jost CH, Connolly HM, Danielson GK, Dearani JA, Warnes CA, Jamil Tajik A. Clinical features and surgical outcome in 25 patients with fenestrations of the coronary sinus. Cardiol Young. 2007;17:592–600. doi:  10.1017/S1047951107001412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hirai S, Hamanaka Y, Mitsui N, Isaka M, Mizukami T. Surgical repair of a common atrium in an adult. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;9:130–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hart SA, Krasuski RA. Incidence of asymptomatic patent foramen ovale according to age. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150:431–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Corby JR. Patent foramen ovale, atrial septal aneurysm, and recurrent stroke. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1331–13332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kerut EK, Norfleet WT, Plotnick GD, Giles TD. Patent foramen ovale: a review of associated conditions and the impact of physiological size. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38:613–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hughes Jr D, Siegel MJ. Computed tomography of adult congenital heart disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 2010;48:817–35. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2010.04.005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Leschka S, Oechslin E, Husmann L, Desbiolles L, Marincek B, Genoni M, et al. Pre- and postoperative evaluation of congenital heart disease in children and adults with 64-section CT. Radiographics. 2007;27:829–46. doi: 10.1148/rg.273065713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Siegel MJ. CT evaluation of congenital heart disease in adults. Appl Radiol. 2005;34:61–8.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wiant A, Nyberg E, Gilkeson RC. CT evaluation of congenital heart disease in adults. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193:388–96. doi: 10.2214/AJR.08.2192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Funabashi N, Maeda F, Nakamura K, Suzuki K, Mita Y, Matsuo K, et al. Channel-like appearance of a patent foramen ovale with left to right shunt demonstrated by 64-slice computed tomography. Int J Cardiol. 2007;119:119–21. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2006.07.095.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim YJ, Hur J, Shim CY, Lee HJ, Ha JW, Choe KO, et al. Patent foramen ovale: diagnosis with multidetector CT–comparison with transesophageal echocardiography. Radiology. 2009;250:61–7. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2501080559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ko SF, Liang CD, Yip HK, Huang CC, Ng SH, Huang CF, et al. Amplatzer septal occluder closure of atrial septal defect: evaluation of transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac CT, and transeso­phageal echocardiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193:1522–9. doi: 10.2214/AJR.09.2854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hoffman JI, Kaplan S. The incidence of congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39:1890–900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jacobs JP, Burke RP, Quintessenza JA, Mavroudis C. Congenital heart surgery nomenclature and database project: ventricular septal defect. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;69:S25–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, Child JS, Connolly HM, Dearani JA, et al. ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines on the Management of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease). Circulation. 2008;118:e714–833. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.190690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Minette MS, Sahn DJ. Congenital heart disease for the adult cardiologist. Circulation. 2006;114:2190–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brickner ME, Hillis LD, Lange RA. Congenital heart disease in adults. first of two parts. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:256–63. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200001273420407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fuster V, Brandenburg RO, McGoon DC, Giuliani ER. Clinical approach and management of congenital heart disease in the adolescent and adult. Cardiovasc Clin. 1980;10:161–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Danchin N, Duval X, Leport C. Prophylaxis of infective endocarditis: French recommendations 2002. Heart. 2005;91:715–8. doi: 10.1136/hrt.2003.033183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chiu SN, Wang JK, Lin MT, Chen CA, Chen HC, Chang CI, et al. Progression of aortic regurgitation after surgical repair of outlet-type ventricular septal defects. Am Heart J. 2007;153:336–42. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2006.10.025.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Baumgartner H, Bonhoeffer P, De Groot NM, de Haan F, Deanfield JE, Galie N, et al. ESC guidelines for the management of grown-up congenital heart disease (new version 2010). Eur Heart J. 2010;31:2915–57. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehq249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hayabuchi Y, Mori K, Kitagawa T, Sakata M, Kagami S. Polytetrafluoroethylene graft calcification in patients with surgically repaired congenital heart disease: evaluation using multidetector-row computed tomography. Am Heart J. 2007;153:806.e1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2007.01.035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shinebourne EAHS, Ho S. Atrioventricular septal defect: complete and partial (ostium primum atrial septal defect). In: Gatzoulis MA, Webb GD, Daubeney PEF, editors. Diagnosis and management of adult congenital heart disease. 1st ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2003. p. 179.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Samaánek M (1991) Prevalence at birth, “natural” risk and survival with atrioventricular septal defect. 1.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jacobs JP, Burke RP, Quintessenza JA, Mavroudis C. Congenital heart surgery nomenclature and database project: atrioventricular canal defect. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;69:S36–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shuhaiber JH, Ho SY, Rigby M, Sethia B. Current options and outcomes for the management of atrioventricular septal defect. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2009;35:891–900. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcts.2009.01.009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Loffredo CA, Hirata J, Wilson PD, Ferencz C, Lurie IW. Atrioventricular septal defects: possible etiologic differences between complete and partial defects. Teratology. 2001;63:87–93. doi: 10.1002/1096-9926(200102)63:2%3C;87::AID-TERA1014%3E;3.0.CO;2-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ebels T, Ho SY, Anderson RH, Meijboom EJ, Eijgelaar A. The surgical anatomy of the left ventricular outflow tract in atrioventricular septal defect. Ann Thorac Surg. 1986;41:483–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Santoro G, Marino B, Di Carlo D, Formigari R, Santoro G, Marcelletti C, et al. Patient selection for repair of complete atrioventricular canal guided by echocardiography. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1996;10:439–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Birim O, van Gameren M, de Jong PL, Witsenburg M, van Osch-Gevers L, Bogers AJ. Outcome after reoperation for ­atrioventricular septal defect repair. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2009;9:83–7. doi: 10.1510/icvts.2008.195180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stulak JM, Burkhart HM, Dearani JA, Cetta F, Barnes RD, Connolly HM, et al. Reoperations after repair of partial atrioventricular septal defect: a 45-year single-center experience. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;89:1352–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dragicevic N, Schmidlin E, Hazelton TR, Nallamshetty L. Gerbode ventricular septal defect diagnosed using cardiac CTA imaging. Radiology Case Rep. 2011;6:530. doi: 10.2484/rcr.v6i3.530.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wojciech Mazur
    • 1
  • Marilyn J. Siegel
    • 2
  • Tomasz Miszalski-Jamka
    • 3
    • 4
  • Robert Pelberg
    • 1
  1. 1.The Christ Hospital Heart and Vascular Center of Greater CincinnatiThe Lindner Center for Research and EducationCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Mallinckrodt Institute of RadiologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Radiology and Imaging Diagnostics4th Military HospitalWrocławPoland
  4. 4.Center for Diagnosis Prevention and TelemedicineJohn Paul II HospitalKrakówPoland

Personalised recommendations