Septal Defects

  • Wojciech Mazur
  • Marilyn J. Siegel
  • Tomasz Miszalski-Jamka
  • Robert Pelberg


Atrial septal defects (ASD) are seen in 1 per 1,500 live births and account for 30–40 % of all adult congenital heart disease [1]. There are five basic types of atrial septal defects (Fig. 11.1): (1) secundum ASD, (2) primum ASD, (3) sinus venosus ASD (superior and inferior types), (4) coronary sinus ASD, and (5) common atrium (simultaneous combination of two or more types of atrial septal defect) [2]. See Table 11.1.


Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Superior Vena Cava Atrial Septal Defect Endocardial Cushion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wojciech Mazur
    • 1
  • Marilyn J. Siegel
    • 2
  • Tomasz Miszalski-Jamka
    • 3
    • 4
  • Robert Pelberg
    • 1
  1. 1.The Christ Hospital Heart and Vascular Center of Greater CincinnatiThe Lindner Center for Research and EducationCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Mallinckrodt Institute of RadiologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Clinical Radiology and Imaging Diagnostics4th Military HospitalWrocławPoland
  4. 4.Center for Diagnosis Prevention and TelemedicineJohn Paul II HospitalKrakówPoland

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