Advertisement

Chalcogenides and Other Non-oxidic Semiconductors

Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

Although oxidic materials constitute the main group of semiconductors employed for photocatalytic applications, some non-oxide compounds have been used for these purposes too. After oxides, sulphides are the most widely used photocatalysts, with special importance in water splitting applications. CdS and ZnS are two of the “classical” photocatalysts, which have been used since the early beginning of the research in this field. In particular, CdS presents the advantage of absorbing visible light (E g  = 2.4 eV), and it has become somewhat a “standard” photocatalyst for reactions undertaken under visible irradiation. More recently, some other sulphides, like ternary sulphides and solid solutions, have shown interesting photocatalytic properties. However, sulphides present the drawback of suffering anodic photocorrosion unless prevented with certain reaction conditions or with special modifications, which limits their applications as we will see below. At the end of the chapter, selenides and other non-oxidic semiconductors will be overviewed.

Keywords

Photocatalytic Activity Hydrogen Evolution Visible Light Irradiation Water Splitting Valence Band Maximum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bao N, Shen L, Takata T, Domen K (2008) Self-templated synthesis of nanoporous CdS nanostructures for highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production under visible light. Chem Mater 20:110–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bubler N, Meier K, Reber JF (1984) Photochemical hydrogen production with cadmium sulfide suspensions. J Phys Chem 88:3261–3268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cao H, Xiao Y, Lu Y, Yin J, Li B, Wu S, Wu X (2010) Ag2Se complex nanostructures with photocatalytic activity and superhydrophobicity. Nano Res 3:863–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Costi R, Saunders AE, Elmalem E, Salant A, Banin U (2008) Visible light-induced charge retention and photocatalysis with hybrid CdSe-Au nanodumbbells. Nano Lett 8:637–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fan J, Chu PK (2010) Group IV nanoparticles: synthesis, properties, and biological applications. Small 6:2080–2098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gao Y, Wang Y, Wang Y (2007) Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water on SiC under visible light irradiation. Reac Kinet Catal Lett 91:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hernández-Alonso MD, Fresno F, Suárez S, Coronado JM (2009) Development of alternative photocatalysts to TiO2: challenges and opportunities. Energy Environ Sci 2:1231–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ho W, Yu JC (2006) Sonochemical synthesis and visible light photocatalytic behavior of CdSe and CdSe/TiO2 nanoparticles. J Mol Catal A: Chem 247:268–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Inoue T, Fujishima A, Konishi S, Honda K (1979) Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide in aqueous suspensions of semiconductor powders. Nature 277:637–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ji F, Li C, Zhang J (2010) Hydrothermal synthesis of Li9Fe3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 nanoparticles and their photocatalytic properties under visible-light illumination. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2:1674–1678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kalyanasundaram K, Borgarello E, Duonghong D, Gratzel M (1981) Cleavage of water by visible-light irradiation of colloidal CdS solutions; inhibition of photocorrosion by RuO2. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 20:987–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kudo A, Miseki Y (2009) Heterogeneous photocatalyst materials for water splitting. Chem Soc Rev 38:253–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lucena R, Fresno F, Conesa JC (2012a) Hydrothermally synthesized nanocrystalline tin disulphide as visible light-active photocatalyst: Spectral response and stability. Appl Catal A Gen 415–416:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lucena R, Fresno F, Conesa JC (2012b) Spectral response and stability of In2S3 as visible light-active photocatalyst. Catal Commun 20:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Navarro RM, Sánchez-Sánchez MC, Alvarez-Galvan MC, del Valle F, Fierro JLG (2009) Hydrogen production from renewable sources: biomass and photocatalytic opportunities. Energy Environ Sci 2:35–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nishidate K, Sato T, Matsukura Y, Baba M, Hasegawa M (2006) Density-functional electronic structure calculations for native defects and Cu impurities in CdS. Phys Rev B 74:035210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ohmori T, Mametsuka H, Suzuki E (2000) Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution on InP suspension with inorganic sacrificial reducing agent. Int J Hydrogen Energy 25:953–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Osterloh FE (2008) Inorganic materials for photochemical splitting of water. Chem Mater 20:35–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Palmisano G, Augugliaro V, Pagliaro M, Palmisano L (2007) Photocatalysis: a promising route for 21st century organic chemistry. Chem Commun 3425–3437Google Scholar
  20. Rao CNR, Pisharody KPR (1975) Transition metal sulphides. Progr Solid State Chem 10:207–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ritterskamp P, Kuklya A, Wüstkamp MA, Kerpen K, Weidenthaler C, Demuth M (2007) A titanium disilicide derived semiconducting catalyst for water splitting under solar radiation—reversible storage of oxygen and hydrogen. Angew Chem Int Ed 46:7770–7774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Reber JF, Meier K (1984) Photochemical production of hydrogen with zinc sulfide suspensions. J Phys Chem 88:5903–5913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Roy SC, Varghese OK, Paulose M, Grimes CA (2010) Toward solar fuels: photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide to hydrocarbons. ACS Nano 4:1259–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stroyuk OL, Rayevska OY, Kozytskiy AV, Kuchmiy SY (2010) Electron energy factors in photocatalytic methylviologen reduction in the presence of semiconductor nanocrystals. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 210:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Trindade T, O’Brien P, Pickett NL (2001) Nanocrystalline semiconductors: synthesis. Properties Perspectives Chem Mater 13:3843–3858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tsuji I, Kato H, Kobayashi H, Kudo A (2004) Photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction from aqueous solutions over band structure-controlled (AgIn)xZn2(1 − x)S2 solid solution photocatalysts with visible-light response and their surface nanostructures. J Am Chem Soc 126:13406–13413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Uchihara T, Matsumura M, Ono J, Tsubomura H (1990) Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid on the Photocatalytic Activities and Flat-Band Potentials of Cadmium Sulfide and Cadmium Selenide. J Phys Chem 94:415–418Google Scholar
  28. Xiong S, Xi B, Wang C, Xi G, Liu X, Qian Y (2007) Solution-phase synthesis and high photocatalytic activity of wurtzite ZnSe ultrathin nanobelts: a general route to 1D semiconductor nanostructured materials. Chem Eur J 13:7926–7932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yi Z, Ye J, Kikugawa N, Kako T, Ouyang S, Stuart-Williams H, Yang H, Cao J, Luo W, Li Z, Liu Y, Withers RL (2010) An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation. Nature Mater 9:559–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang H, Chen G, Bahnemann DW (2009) Photoelectrocatalytic materials for environmental applications. J Mater Chem 19:5089–5121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zheng N, Bu X, Vu H, Feng P (2005a) Open-framework chalcogenides as visible-light photocatalysts for hydrogen generation from water. Angew Chem Int Ed 44:5299–5303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zheng N, Bu X, Feng P (2005b) Na5(In4S)(InS4)3·6H2O, a Zeolite-like structure with unusual SIn4 tetrahedra. J Am Chem Soc 127:5286–5287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhou W, Yan L, Wang Y, Zhang Y (2006) SiC nanowires: a photocatalytic nanomaterial. Appl Phys Lett 89:013105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhu J, Palchik O, Chen S, Gedanken A (2000) Microwave assisted preparation of CdSe, PbSe, and Cu2−xSe nanoparticles. J Phys Chem B 104:7344–7347CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Environmental ResearchUniversity of Nova GoricaNova GoricaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations