Bladder and Urethra

  • Mukesh G. Harisinghani
  • Arumugam Rajesh


Case 1: 16 year old male with umbilical discharge Case 1: 16 year old male with umbilical discharge Case 3: 63 year old male with hematuria Case 4: 44 year female with pelvic pain


Urethra Hematuria Cases Pelvic Pain Public Health Radiology 
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Suggested Readings by Case

Case 4.1

  1. Rowell AC, Sangster GP, Caraway JD, et al. Genitourinary imaging: part 1, congenital urinary anomalies and their management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;199(5):W545–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Yu JS, Kim KW, Lee HJ, et al. Urachal remnant diseases: spectrum of CT and US findings. Radiographics. 2001;21(2):451–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Case 4.2

  1. Levenson R, Mai-Lan HO. Imaging of genitourinary emergencies. Emergency radiology. New York: Springer; 2013. p. 85–98.Google Scholar
  2. Thomas AA, Lane BR, Thomas AZ, et al. Emphysematous cystitis: a review of 135 cases. BJU Int. 2007;100(1):17–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Case 4.3

  1. Shebel HM, Elsayes KM, Abou El Atta HM, et al. Genitourinary schistosomiasis: life cycle and radiologic-pathologic findings. Radiographics. 2012;32(4):1031–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Wong-you-cheong JJ, Woodward PJ, Manning MA, et al. From the archives of the AFIP: inflammatory and nonneoplastic bladder masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2006;26(6):1847–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Case 4.4

  1. Ishak C, Kanth N. Bladder trauma: multidetector computed tomography cstography. Emerg Radiol. 2011;18(4):321–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Matlock KA, Tyroch AH, Kronfol ZN, et al. Blunt traumatic bladder rupture: a 10-year prospective. Am Surg. 2013;79(6):589–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Vaccaro JP, Brody JM. CT cystography in the evaluation of major bladder trauma1. Radiographics. 2000;20(5):1373–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Case 4.5

  1. Cheung G, Sahai A, Billia M, et al. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer. BMC Med. 2013;11:13.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hafeez S, Huddart R. Advances in bladder cancer imaging. BMC Med. 2013;11:104.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Lawrentschuk N, Lee ST, Scott AM. Current role of PET, CT, MR for invasive bladder cancer. Curr Urol Rep. 2013;14(2):84–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Vikram R, Sandler CM, Ng CS. Imaging and staging of transitional cell carcinoma: part 1, lower urinary tract. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;192(6):1481–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Wong-You-Cheong JJ, Wagner BJ, Davis CJ. Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 1998;18(1):123–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Case 4.6

  1. Baez JC, Jagannathan JP, Krajewski K, et al. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: imaging characteristics. Cancer Imaging. 2012;12(1):153–62.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Mallat F, Hmida W, Slama A, et al. Unexpected small urinary bladder pheochromocytoma: a nonspecific presentation. Case Rep Urol. 2013;2013:496547.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Vyas S, Kalra N, Singh SK, et al. Pheochromocytoma of urinary bladder. Indian J Nephrol. 2011;21(3):198–200.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Case 4.7

  1. Ingram MD, Watson SG, Skippage PL, et al. Urethral injuries after pelvic trauma: evaluation with urethrography. Radiographics. 2008;28(6):1631–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Rosenstein DI, Alsikafi NF. Diagnosis and classification of urethral injuries. Urolo Clin North Am. 2006;33(1):3019.Google Scholar

Case 4.8

  1. Chou CP, Levenson RB, Elsayes KM, et al. Imaging of female urethral diverticulum: an update. Radiographics. 2008;28(7):1917–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hahn WY, Israel GM, Lee VS. MRI of female urethral and periurethral disorders. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;182(3):677–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kawashima A, Sandler CM, Wasserman NF, et al. Imaging of urethral disease: a pictorial review. Radiographics. 2004;24 Suppl 1:S195–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Prasad SR, Menias CO, Narra VR, et al. Cross-sectional imaging of the female urethra: technique and results. Radiographics. 2005;25(3):749–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Case 4.9

  1. Del Gaizo A, Silva AC, Lam-Himlin DM, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of solid urethral and peri-urethral lesions. Insights Imaging. 2013;4:461–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hickey N, Murphy J, Herschorn S. Carcinoma in a urethral diverticulum: magnetic resonance imaging and sonographic appearance. Urology. 2000;55:588–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Surabhi VR, Menias CO, George V, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of female urethral and periurethral disorders. Radiol Clin North Am. 2013;51:941–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Tunitsky E, Goldman HB, Ridgeway B. Periurethral mass: a rare and puzzling entity. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;120:1459–64.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mukesh G. Harisinghani
    • 1
  • Arumugam Rajesh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyHarvard Medical School Massachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity Hospitals of Leicester NHS Tr Leicester General HospitalLeicesterUK

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