Integrated Urban Water System
This chapter presents the challenges faced by the water utilities to provide safe, secure and reliable service to meet the Water Framework Directives 2000/60/EC and the water safety plan (WHO ). These directives among others will form framing conditions for the risk and vulnerability analysis to be conducted. The analysis approach follows standard methodology for risk and vulnerability described in Chap. 3 of this book. In order to structure the analysis, it is common to split the system into the various water cycle components. For each of these components, hazards and threats are identified, probability and consequences assessed, and finally, the total risk picture presented. Practical examples from the Oslo case study are presented to support the approach.
KeywordsFiltration Chlorine Sewage Boiling Manure
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