Integrated Urban Water System

  • Rita UgarelliEmail author
  • Jon Røstum
Part of the Springer Series in Reliability Engineering book series (RELIABILITY)


This chapter presents the challenges faced by the water utilities to provide safe, secure and reliable service to meet the Water Framework Directives 2000/60/EC and the water safety plan (WHO [16]). These directives among others will form framing conditions for the risk and vulnerability analysis to be conducted. The analysis approach follows standard methodology for risk and vulnerability described in Chap. 3 of this book. In order to structure the analysis, it is common to split the system into the various water cycle components. For each of these components, hazards and threats are identified, probability and consequences assessed, and finally, the total risk picture presented. Practical examples from the Oslo case study are presented to support the approach.


Water Cycle Fault Tree Analysis Fault Tree Analysis Waterborne Outbreak Surface Water Reservoir 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Almeida, M. C., Ugarelli, R., Leitão, J. P., & Vieira P. (2011). Risk identification. Supporting document definition of contents and data structure. Report D. 2.2.1—PREPARED Project. En 752:2008—Drain and sewer systems outside buildings.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hrudey, E., Og Hrudey, E,. (2004). Safe drinking water Lessons from recent outbreaks in affluent nations. London: IWA Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hamilton, P. D., Paul, G & Simon J. T. Pollarda (2006). A commentary on recent water safety initiatives in the context of water utility risk management. Environment International, 32(8), 958–966.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Health Stream. (2008) Public health newsletter newsletter of water quality research Australia. Issue 49 March 2008 (8TU
  5. 5.
    Health Stream. (2010) Public health newsletter newsletter of water quality research Australia. Issue 58 December 2010 (8TU
  6. 6.
    Hokstad, P., Røstum, J., Sklet, S., Rosén, L., Pettersson, T. J. R., Linde, A. et al. (2009). Methods for risk analysis of drinking water systems from source to tap—Guidance report on risk analysis. Available from
  7. 7.
    ISO. (2009). ISO 31 000:2009 Risk management. Principles and guidelines. International Standards Organization.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    ISO. (2009). ISO 31 010:2009 Risk management. Risk assessment techniques. International Standards Organization.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    ISO (2009). ISO Guide 73:2009 Risk management. Vocabulary. International Standards Organization.NHMRC. (2008). Guidelines for managing risks in recreational water. Australia: National Health and Medical research Council.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    ISO 24511:2007—Activities relating to drinking water and wastewater services—Guidelines for the management of wastewater utilities and for the assessment of wastewater services.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    ISO 24512:2007—Activities relating to drinking water and wastewater services—Guidelines for the management of drinking water utilities and for the assessment of drinking water services.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rausand, M., & Høyland, A. (2004). System reliability theory; models, statistical methods and applications (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley. (ISBN 0-471-47133-X).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rosen, L., Hokstad, P., Lindhe, A., Sklet, S., & Rostum, J. (2009). Generic framework and methods for integrated risk management in water safety plans. Germany: Techneau Report.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Røstum, J., Ugarelli, R. Selseth, I. (2011). Risikovurdering av vanndistribusjon som en del av ROS VAV prosjektet. SINTEF rapport SBF 2011 0052.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Røstum, J. (2011). Risiko—og sårbarhetsanalyse (ROS) i Vann- og avløpsetaten.—Sammendragsrapport. SINTEF report SBF2011F0053.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    WHO. (2009). Water safety plan manual. Geneva: Step-by-step risk management for drinking-water suppliers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SINTEF Building and InfrastructureTrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations