Venous Thromboembolic Disease

Chapter

Abstract

Venous disease is unique, encompassing a spectrum between thromboembolic phenomena and venous insufficiency. Correct therapeutic choices for patients with VTE can result in improved mortality rates and reduced long-term morbidity. While anticoagulation, thrombolysis, and catheter-based treatments are extensively used and often supported by high-quality data, there are still many areas of uncertainty such as patient selection for invasive treatment, improving patient compliance with anticoagulation and compression stockings, prevention of PTS, and prediction of recurrence. Venous insufficiency, on the other hand, is seldom fatal, but often detrimental to patients’ quality of life. Conservative, catheter-based, and surgical treatments are available; however, there is still much to be known, including mechanism of disease and patient selection for catheter-based interventions.

Keywords

Vortex Catheter Foam Heparin Warfarin 

References

  1. 1.
    Kakkar VV, Howe CT, Flanc C, Clarke MB. Natural history of postoperative deep-vein thrombosis. Lancet. 1969;2(7614):230–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, Adams RJ, Berry JD, Brown TM, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(4):e18–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yamaki T, Nozaki M. Patterns of venous insufficiency after an acute deep vein thrombosis. J Am Coll Surg. 2005;201(2):231–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Galanaud JP, Sevestre MA, Genty C, Laroche JP, Zizka V, Quere I, et al. Comparison of the clinical history of symptomatic isolated muscular calf vein thrombosis versus deep calf vein thrombosis. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52(4):932, 8, 938.e1–2.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jaff MR, McMurtry MS, Archer SL, Cushman M, Goldenberg N, Goldhaber SZ, et al. Management of massive and submassive pulmonary embolism, iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(16):1788–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eichinger S, Heinze G, Jandeck LM, Kyrle PA. Risk assessment of recurrence in patients with unprovoked deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism: the Vienna prediction model. Circulation. 2010;121(14):1630–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anderson Jr FA, Spencer FA. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2003;107(23 Suppl 1):I9–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goldhaber SZ. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(1):1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prandoni P, Lensing AW, Cogo A, Cuppini S, Villalta S, Carta M, et al. The long-term clinical course of acute deep venous thrombosis. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125(1):1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kahn SR. Measurement properties of the Villalta scale to define and classify the severity of the post-thrombotic syndrome. J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7(5):884–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    White RH. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2003;107(23 Suppl 1):I4–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rodger MA, Kahn SR, Wells PS, Anderson DA, Chagnon I, Le Gal G, et al. Identifying unprovoked thromboembolism patients at low risk for recurrence who can discontinue anticoagulant therapy. CMAJ. 2008;179(5):417–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Douketis JD, Gu CS, Schulman S, Ghirarduzzi A, Pengo V, Prandoni P. The risk for fatal pulmonary embolism after discontinuing anticoagulant therapy for venous thromboembolism. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(11):766–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bounameaux H, Perrier A, Righini M. Diagnosis of venous thromboembolism: an update. Vasc Med. 2010;15(5):399–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kearon C, Kahn SR, Agnelli G, Goldhaber S, Raskob GE, Comerota AJ, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (8th edition). Chest. 2008;133(6 Suppl):454S–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goldhaber SZ, Piazza G. Optimal duration of anticoagulation after venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2011;123(6):664–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ansell J, Hirsh J, Hylek E, Jacobson A, Crowther M, Palareti G, et al. Pharmacology and management of the vitamin K antagonists: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (8th edition). Chest. 2008;133(6 Suppl):160S–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kovacs MJ, Rodger M, Anderson DR, Morrow B, Kells G, Kovacs J, et al. Comparison of 10-mg and 5-mg warfarin initiation nomograms together with low-molecular-weight heparin for outpatient treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(9):714–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Quiroz R, Gerhard-Herman M, Kosowsky JM, DeSantis SM, Kucher N, McKean SC, et al. Comparison of a single end point to determine optimal initial warfarin dosing (5 mg versus 10 mg) for venous thromboembolism. Am J Cardiol. 2006;98(4):535–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ridker PM, Goldhaber SZ, Danielson E, Rosenberg Y, Eby CS, Deitcher SR, et al. Long-term, low-intensity warfarin therapy for the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(15):1425–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cosmi B, Palareti G. Update on the predictive value of D-dimer in patients with idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Thromb Res. 2010;125 Suppl 2:S62–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Witt DM. Review: positive D-dimer results predict recurrence after first unprovoked VTE regardless of test timing or cutpoint, or patient age. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(2):JC1,4, JC1-5.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Prandoni P, Prins MH, Lensing AW, Ghirarduzzi A, Ageno W, Imberti D, et al. Residual thrombosis on ultrasonography to guide the duration of anticoagulation in patients with deep venous thrombosis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150(9):577–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cosmi B, Legnani C, Iorio A, Pengo V, Ghirarduzzi A, Testa S, et al. Residual venous obstruction, alone and in combination with D-dimer, as a risk factor for recurrence after anticoagulation withdrawal following a first idiopathic deep vein thrombosis in the prolong study. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2010;39(3):356–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cosmi B, Legnani C, Cini M, Guazzaloca G, Palareti G. D-dimer and residual vein obstruction as risk factors for recurrence during and after anticoagulation withdrawal in patients with a first episode of provoked deep-vein thrombosis. Thromb Haemost. 2011;105(5):837–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ruiz-Irastorza G, Cuadrado MJ, Ruiz-Arruza I, Brey R, Crowther M, Derksen R, et al. Evidence-based recommendations for the prevention and long-term management of thrombosis in antiphospholipid antibody-positive patients: report of a task force at the 13th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies. Lupus. 2011;20(2):206–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Prandoni P, Lensing AW, Piccioli A, Bernardi E, Simioni P, Girolami B, et al. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and bleeding complications during anticoagulant treatment in patients with cancer and venous thrombosis. Blood. 2002;100(10):3484–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Brandjes DP, Buller HR, Heijboer H, Huisman MV, de Rijk M, Jagt H, et al. Randomised trial of effect of compression stockings in patients with symptomatic proximal-vein thrombosis. Lancet. 1997;349(9054):759–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Prandoni P, Lensing AW, Prins MH, Frulla M, Marchiori A, Bernardi E, et al. Below-knee elastic compression stockings to prevent the post-thrombotic syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(4):249–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kahn SR, Kearon C, Julian JA, Mackinnon B, Kovacs MJ, Wells P, et al. Predictors of the post-thrombotic syndrome during long-term treatment of proximal deep vein thrombosis. J Thromb Haemost. 2005;3(4):718–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Baekgaard N, Broholm R, Just S, Jorgensen M, Jensen LP. Long-term results using catheter-directed thrombolysis in 103 lower limbs with acute iliofemoral venous thrombosis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2010;39(1):112–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mewissen MW, Seabrook GR, Meissner MH, Cynamon J, Labropoulos N, Haughton SH. Catheter-directed thrombolysis for lower extremity deep venous thrombosis: report of a National Multicenter Registry. Radiology. 1999;211(1):39–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    AbuRahma AF, Perkins SE, Wulu JT, Ng HK. Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis: conventional therapy versus lysis and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting. Ann Surg. 2001;233(6):752–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Enden T, Klow NE, Sandvik L, Slagsvold CE, Ghanima W, Hafsahl G, et al. Catheter-directed thrombolysis vs. anticoagulant therapy alone in deep vein thrombosis: results of an open randomized, controlled trial reporting on short-term patency. J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7(8):1268–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Comerota AJ. The ATTRACT trial: rationale for early intervention for iliofemoral DVT. Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther. 2009;21(4):221,4; quiz 224–5.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Laporte S, Mismetti P, Decousus H, Uresandi F, Otero R, Lobo JL, et al. Clinical predictors for fatal pulmonary embolism in 15,520 patients with venous thromboembolism: findings from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbolica Venosa (RIETE) Registry. Circulation. 2008;117(13):1711–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Karthikesalingam A, Young EL, Hinchliffe RJ, Loftus IM, Thompson MM, Holt PJ. A systematic review of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011;41(4):554–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kwon SH, Oh JH, Seo TS, Ahn HJ, Park HC. Percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy for the treatment of acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis: is thrombolysis needed? Clin Radiol. 2009;64(5):484–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kim HS, Patra A, Paxton BE, Khan J, Streiff MB. Adjunctive percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy for lower-extremity deep vein thrombosis: clinical and economic outcomes. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2006;17(7):1099–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nazir SA, Ganeshan A, Nazir S, Uberoi R. Endovascular treatment options in the management of lower limb deep venous thrombosis. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2009;32(5):861–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gogalniceanu P, Johnston CJ, Khalid U, Holt PJ, Hincliffe R, Loftus IM, et al. Indications for thrombolysis in deep venous thrombosis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;38(2):192–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Plate G, Einarsson E, Ohlin P, et al. Thrombectomy with temporary arteriovenous fistula: the treatment of choice in acute iliofemoral venous thrombosis. J Vasc Surg. 1984;1(6):867–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Plate G, Akesson H, Einarsson E, Ohlin P, Eklof B. Long-term results of venous thrombectomy combined with a temporary arterio-venous fistula. Eur J Vasc Surg. 1990;4(5):483–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Plate G, Eklof B, Norgren L, Ohlin P, Dahlstrom JA. Venous thrombectomy for iliofemoral vein thrombosis – 10-year results of a prospective randomised study. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 1997;14(5):367–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stein PD, Kayali F, Olson RE. Twenty-one-year trends in the use of inferior vena cava filters. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(14):1541–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Crowther MA. Inferior vena cava filters in the management of venous thromboembolism. Am J Med. 2007;120(10 Suppl 2):S13–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Young T, Tang H, Hughes R. Vena caval filters for the prevention of pulmonary embolism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;2:CD006212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Spencer FA, Bates SM, Goldberg RJ, Lessard D, Emery C, Glushchenko A, et al. A population-based study of inferior vena cava filters in patients with acute venous thromboembolism. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(16):1456–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    White RH, Zhou H, Kim J, Romano PS. A population-based study of the effectiveness of inferior vena cava filter use among patients with venous thromboembolism. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(13):2033–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Decousus H, Leizorovicz A, Parent F, Page Y, Tardy B, Girard P, et al. A clinical trial of vena caval filters in the prevention of pulmonary embolism in patients with proximal deep-vein thrombosis. prevention du risque d’embolie pulmonaire par interruption cave study group. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(7):409–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stein PD, Alnas M, Skaf E, Kayali F, Siddiqui T, Olson RE, et al. Outcome and complications of retrievable inferior vena cava filters. Am J Cardiol. 2004;94(8):1090–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Vaziri K, Bhanot P, Hungness ES, Morasch MD, Prystowsky JB, Nagle AP. Retrievable inferior vena cava filters in high-risk patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Surg Endosc. 2009;23(10): 2203–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dabbagh O, Nagam N, Chitima-Matsiga R, Bearelly S, Bearelly D. Retrievable inferior vena cava filters are not getting retrieved: where is the gap? Thromb Res. 2010;126(6):493–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Minocha J, Idakoji I, Riaz A, Karp J, Gupta R, Chrisman HB, et al. Improving inferior vena cava filter retrieval rates: impact of a dedicated inferior vena cava filter clinic. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2010;21(12):1847–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kucher N. Clinical practice. Deep-vein thrombosis of the upper extremities. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(9):861–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Evans RS, Sharp JH, Linford LH, Lloyd JF, Tripp JS, Jones JP, et al. Risk of symptomatic DVT associated with peripherally inserted central catheters. Chest. 2010;138(4):803–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    King MM, Rasnake MS, Rodriguez RG, Riley NJ, Stamm JA. Peripherally inserted central venous catheter-associated thrombosis: retrospective analysis of clinical risk factors in adult patients. South Med J. 2006;99(10):1073–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Owens CA, Bui JT, Knuttinen MG, Gaba RC, Carrillo TC. Pulmonary embolism from upper extremity deep vein thrombosis and the role of superior vena cava filters: a review of the literature. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2010;21(6):779–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Jones MA, Lee DY, Segall JA, Landry GJ, Liem TK, Mitchell EL, et al. Characterizing resolution of catheter-associated upper extremity deep venous thrombosis. J Vasc Surg. 2010;51(1):108–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Usoh F, Hingorani A, Ascher E, Shiferson A, Tran V, Marks N, et al. Long-term follow-up for superior vena cava filter placement. Ann Vasc Surg. 2009;23(3):350–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Illig KA, Doyle AJ. A comprehensive review of Paget-Schroetter syndrome. J Vasc Surg. 2010;51(6):1538–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Melby SJ, Vedantham S, Narra VR, Paletta Jr GA, Khoo-Summers L, Driskill M, et al. Comprehensive surgical management of the competitive athlete with effort thrombosis of the subclavian vein (Paget-Schroetter syndrome). J Vasc Surg. 2008;47(4):809, 820. discussion 821.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Urschel Jr HC, Patel AN. Surgery remains the most effective treatment for Paget-Schroetter syndrome: 50 years’ experience. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86(1):254, 60. discussion 260.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Elman EE, Kahn SR. The post-thrombotic syndrome after upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in adults: a systematic review. Thromb Res. 2006;117(6):609–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Prescott SM, Tikoff G. Deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity: a reappraisal. Circulation. 1979;59(2):350–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tilney ML, Griffiths HJ, Edwards EA. Natural history of major venous thrombosis of the upper extremity. Arch Surg. 1970;101(6): 792–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lee JT, Karwowski JK, Harris EJ, Haukoos JS, Olcott IV C. Long-term thrombotic recurrence after nonoperative management of Paget-Schroetter syndrome. J Vasc Surg. 2006;43(6):1236–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lanciego C, Pangua C, Chacon JI, Velasco J, Boy RC, Viana A, et al. Endovascular stenting as the first step in the overall management of malignant superior vena cava syndrome. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193(2):549–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wilson LD, Detterbeck FC, Yahalom J. Clinical practice. superior vena cava syndrome with malignant causes. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(18):1862–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rowell NP, Gleeson FV. Steroids, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and stents for superior vena caval obstruction in carcinoma of the bronchus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;4:CD001316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kalra M, Gloviczki P, Andrews JC, Cherry Jr KJ, Bower TC, Panneton JM, et al. Open surgical and endovascular treatment of superior vena cava syndrome caused by nonmalignant disease. J Vasc Surg. 2003;38(2):215–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bagheri R, Rahim M, Rezaeetalab F, Akbari H, Shojaian R. Malignant superior vena cava syndrome: is this a medical emergency? Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;15(2):89–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schraufnagel DE, Hill R, Leech JA, Pare JA. Superior vena caval obstruction. Is it a medical emergency? Am J Med. 1981;70(6): 1169–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Watkinson AF, Yeow TN, Fraser C. Endovascular stenting to treat obstruction of the superior vena cava. BMJ. 2008;336(7658): 1434–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ganeshan A, Hon LQ, Warakaulle DR, Morgan R, Uberoi R. Superior vena caval stenting for SVC obstruction: current status. Eur J Radiol. 2009;71(2):343–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nguyen NP, Borok TL, Welsh J, Vinh-Hung V. Safety and effectiveness of vascular endoprosthesis for malignant superior vena cava syndrome. Thorax. 2009;64(2):174–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sheikh MA, Fernandez Jr BB, Gray BH, Graham LM, Carman TL. Endovascular stenting of nonmalignant superior vena cava syndrome. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2005;65(3):405–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kee ST, Kinoshita L, Razavi MK, Nyman UR, Semba CP, Dake MD. Superior vena cava syndrome: treatment with catheter-directed thrombolysis and endovascular stent placement. Radiology. 1998;206(1):187–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Silverstein MD, Heit JA, Mohr DN, Petterson TM, O’Fallon WM, Melton III LJ. Trends in the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a 25-year population-based study. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(6):585–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Stein PD, Henry JW. Prevalence of acute pulmonary embolism among patients in a general hospital and at autopsy. Chest. 1995;108(4):978–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Heit JA, Silverstein MD, Mohr DN, Petterson TM, O’Fallon WM, Melton III LJ. Predictors of survival after deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a population-based, cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(5):445–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pollack CV, Schreiber D, Goldhaber SZ, Slattery D, Fanikos J, O’Neil BJ, et al. Clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism in the emergency department: Initial report of EMPEROR (Multicenter Emergency Medicine Pulmonary Embolism in the Real World Registry). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57(6):700–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wells PS, Anderson DR, Rodger M, Stiell I, Dreyer JF, Barnes D, et al. Excluding pulmonary embolism at the bedside without diagnostic imaging: management of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism presenting to the emergency department by using a simple clinical model and D-dimer. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(2):98–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bova C, Pesavento R, Marchiori A, Palla A, Enea I, Pengo V, et al. Risk stratification and outcomes in hemodynamically stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism: a prospective, multicentre, cohort study with three months of follow-up. J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7(6):938–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Subramaniam RM, Mandrekar J, Chang C, Blair D, Gilbert K, Peller PJ, et al. Pulmonary embolism outcome: a prospective evaluation of CT pulmonary angiographic clot burden score and ECG score. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;190(6):1599–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    EINSTEIN Investigators, Bauersachs R, Berkowitz SD, Brenner B, Buller HR, Decousus H, et al. Oral rivaroxaban for symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(26):2499–510.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Spurzem JR, Geraci SA. Outpatient management of patients following pulmonary embolism. Am J Med. 2010;123(11):987–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kucher N, Rossi E, De Rosa M, Goldhaber SZ. Massive pulmonary embolism. Circulation. 2006;113(4):577–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Dong BR, Hao Q, Yue J, Wu T, Liu GJ. Thrombolytic therapy for pulmonary embolism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;3:CD004437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Skaf E, Beemath A, Siddiqui T, Janjua M, Patel NR, Stein PD. Catheter-tip embolectomy in the management of acute massive pulmonary embolism. Am J Cardiol. 2007;99(3):415–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kuo WT, van den Bosch MA, Hofmann LV, Louie JD, Kothary N, Sze DY. Catheter-directed embolectomy, fragmentation, and thrombolysis for the treatment of massive pulmonary embolism after failure of systemic thrombolysis. Chest. 2008;134(2):250–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sakhuja R, Gandhi S, Rogers RK, Margey RJP, Weinberg I, Jaff M, Schainfeld R, Rosenfield K. Initial case series treated with the AngioVac suction cannula and circuit: A possible novel endovenous approach for treatment of central venous or pulmonary arterial pathology. Poster Presentation at American College of Cardiology, 60th Annual Scientific Session, New Orleans, LA, 2011. (Abstract #12530).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Sukhija R, Aronow WS, Lee J, Kakar P, McClung JA, Levy JA, et al. Association of right ventricular dysfunction with in-hospital mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism and reduction in mortality in patients with right ventricular dysfunction by pulmonary embolectomy. Am J Cardiol. 2005;95(5):695–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Leacche M, Unic D, Goldhaber SZ, Rawn JD, Aranki SF, Couper GS, et al. Modern surgical treatment of massive pulmonary embolism: results in 47 consecutive patients after rapid diagnosis and aggressive surgical approach. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;129(5):1018–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Meneveau N, Seronde MF, Blonde MC, Legalery P, Didier-Petit K, Briand F, et al. Management of unsuccessful thrombolysis in acute massive pulmonary embolism. Chest. 2006;129(4):1043–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    O’Sullivan GJ, Semba CP, Bittner CA, Kee ST, Razavi MK, Sze DY, et al. Endovascular management of iliac vein compression (May-Thurner) syndrome. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2000;11(7):823–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Titus JM, Moise MA, Bena J, Lyden SP, Clair DG. Iliofemoral stenting for venous occlusive disease. J Vasc Surg. 2011;53(3): 706–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Eberhardt RT, Raffetto JD. Chronic venous insufficiency. Circulation. 2005;111(18):2398–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Perrin M, Ramelet AA. Pharmacological treatment of primary chronic venous disease: rationale, results and unanswered questions. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011;41(1):117–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Raju S, Neglen P. Clinical practice. Chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(22):2319–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Beebe-Dimmer JL, Pfeifer JR, Engle JS, Schottenfeld D. The epidemiology of chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins. Ann Epidemiol. 2005;15(3):175–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Vasquez MA, Rabe E, McLafferty RB, Shortell CK, Marston WA, Gillespie D, et al. Revision of the venous clinical severity score: venous outcomes consensus statement: special communication of the American Venous Forum Ad Hoc Outcomes Working Group. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52(5):1387–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Parnaby CN, Welch GH, Stuart WP. An overview of the surgical aspects of lower limb venous disease. Scott Med J. 2009;54(3):30–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Nicolaides AN, Cardiovascular Disease Educational and Research Trust, European Society of Vascular Surgery, The International Angiology Scientific Activity Congress Organization, International Union of Angiology, Union Internationale de Phlebologie at the Abbaye des Vaux de Cernay. Investigation of chronic venous insufficiency: a consensus statement (France, March 5-9, 1997). Circulation. 2000;102(20):E126–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Neglen P, Writing Group II of the Pacific Vascular Symposium 6, Eklof B, Kulwicki A, Davies A, Deschamps T, et al. Prevention and treatment of venous ulcers in primary chronic venous insufficiency. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52(5 Suppl):15S–20S.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    O’Meara S, Cullum NA, Nelson EA. Compression for venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;1:CD000265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Martinez MJ, Bonfill X, Moreno RM, Vargas E, Capella D. Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;3:CD003229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Pittler MH, Ernst E. Horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;1:CD003230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Jull A, Arroll B, Parag V, Waters J. Pentoxifylline for treating venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;3: CD001733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Stucker M, Kobus S, Altmeyer P, Reich-Schupke S. Review of published information on foam sclerotherapy. Dermatol Surg. 2010;36 Suppl 2:983–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Gohel MS, Barwell JR, Taylor M, Chant T, Foy C, Earnshaw JJ, et al. Long term results of compression therapy alone versus compression plus surgery in chronic venous ulceration (ESCHAR): randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2007;335(7610):83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Leopardi D, Hoggan BL, Fitridge RA, Woodruff PW, Maddern GJ. Systematic review of treatments for varicose veins. Ann Vasc Surg. 2009;23(2):264–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lim CS, Davies AH. Pathogenesis of primary varicose veins. Br J Surg. 2009;96(11):1231–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Huerta C, Johansson S, Wallander MA, Garcia Rodriguez LA. Risk factors and short-term mortality of venous thromboembolism diagnosed in the primary care setting in the United Kingdom. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(9):935–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Desmyttere J, Grard C, Stalnikiewicz G, Wassmer B, Mordon S. Endovenous laser ablation (980 nm) of the small saphenous vein in a series of 147 limbs with a 3-year follow-up. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2010;39(1):99–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kouri B. Current evaluation and treatment of lower extremity varicose veins. Am J Med. 2009;122(6):513–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Tenbrook Jr JA, Iafrati MD, O’donnell Jr TF, Wolf MP, Hoffman SN, Pauker SG, et al. Systematic review of outcomes after surgical management of venous disease incorporating subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2004;39(3):583–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    van den Bos R, Arends L, Kockaert M, Neumann M, Nijsten T. Endovenous therapies of lower extremity varicosities: a meta-analysis. J Vasc Surg. 2009;49(1):230–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wells PS, Anderson DR, Bormanis J, Guy F, Mitchell M, Gray L, et al. Value of assessment of pretest probability of deep-vein thrombosis in clinical management. Lancet. 1997;350(9094):1795–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Decousus H, Prandoni P, Mismetti P, Bauersachs RM, Boda Z, Brenner B, et al. Fondaparinux for the treatment of superficial-vein thrombosis in the legs. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(13):1222–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lassen MR, Gallus A, Raskob GE, Pineo G, Chen D, Ramirez LM, et al. Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip replacement. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(26):2487–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Vedantham S, Thorpe PE, Cardella JF, Grassi CJ, Patel NH, Ferral H, et al. Quality improvement guidelines for the treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis with use of endovascular thrombus removal. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2009;20(7 Suppl):S227–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wells PS, Anderson DR, Rodger M, Ginsberg JS, Kearon C, Gent M, et al. Derivation of a simple clinical model to categorize patients probability of pulmonary embolism: Increasing the models utility with the SimpliRED D-dimer. Thromb Haemost. 2000;83(3):416–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CardiologyMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Section of Vascular Medicine, Department of MedicineMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations