Skip to main content

Artistic Stylization by Nonlinear Filtering

Part of the Computational Imaging and Vision book series (CIVI,volume 42)

Abstract

Image processing techniques that perform local filtering operations provide an interesting alternative to other classical techniques, such as stroke-based rendering or segmentation-based approaches. In this chapter, several popular approaches developed in the previous years are reviewed. Among these are approaches based on the bilateral filter, the difference of Gaussians filter, and the Kuwahara filter, as well as approaches that combine diffusion with shock filtering. In addition, a brief introduction to approaches based on morphological filtering and techniques working in the gradient domain is given. Besides discussing isotropic approaches, a focus is placed on anisotropic generalizations that take the local structure into account. These typically create a strong artistic look by enhancing and exaggerating directional image features.

Keywords

  • Partial Differential Equation
  • Bilateral Filter
  • Canny Edge Detector
  • Gradient Domain
  • Line Integral Convolution

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-4519-6_5
  • Chapter length: 25 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4471-4519-6
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 5.1
Fig. 5.2
Fig. 5.3
Fig. 5.4
Fig. 5.5
Fig. 5.6
Fig. 5.7
Fig. 5.8
Fig. 5.9
Fig. 5.10
Fig. 5.11
Fig. 5.12
Fig. 5.13
Fig. 5.14
Fig. 5.15
Fig. 5.16
Fig. 5.17

References

  1. Agrawal, A., Raskar, R.: Gradient domain manipulation techniques in vision and graphics. In: ICCV Course (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Alvarez, L., Mazorra, L.: Signal and image restoration using shock filters and anisotropic diffusion. SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 31(2), 590–605 (1994). doi:10.1137/0731032

    MathSciNet  MATH  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Aubert, G., Kornprobst, P.: Mathematical Problems in Image Processing: Partial Differential Equations and the Calculus of Variations. Springer, Berlin (2006)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  4. Aurich, V., Weule, J.: Non-linear Gaussian filters performing edge preserving diffusion. In: Proc. DAGM-Symposium, pp. 538–545 (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Barash, D., Comaniciu, D.: A common framework for nonlinear diffusion, adaptive smoothing, bilateral filtering and mean shift. Image Vis. Comput. 22(1), 73–81 (2004)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Bhat, P., Zitnick, C.L., Cohen, M.F., Curless, B.: GradientShop: a gradient-domain optimization framework for image and video filtering. ACM Trans. Graph. 29(2), 10 (2010). doi:10.1145/1731047.1731048

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Bousseau, A., Kaplan, M., Thollot, J., Sillion, F.X.: Interactive watercolor rendering with temporal coherence and abstraction. In: Proc. NPAR, pp. 141–149 (2006). doi:10.1145/1124728.1124751

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bousseau, A., Neyret, F., Thollot, J., Salesin, D.: Video watercolorization using bidirectional texture advection. ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 104 (2007). doi:10.1145/1276377.1276507

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Brox, T., Boomgaard, R., Lauze, F., Weijer, J., Weickert, J., Mrázek, P., Kornprobst, P.: Adaptive structure tensors and their applications. In: Visualization and Processing of Tensor Fields, pp. 17–47. Springer, Berlin (2006). doi:10.1007/3-540-31272-2_2

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Cabral, B., Leedom, L.C.: Imaging vector fields using line integral convolution. In: Proc. SIGGRAPH, pp. 263–270 (1993). doi:10.1145/166117.166151

    Google Scholar 

  11. Canny, J.F.: A computational approach to edge detection. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8, 769–798 (1986). doi:10.1109/TPAMI.1986.4767851

    Google Scholar 

  12. Chen, J., Paris, S., Durand, F.: Real-time edge-aware image processing with the bilateral grid. ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 103 (2007). doi:10.1145/1276377.1276506

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  13. Criminisi, A., Sharp, T., Rother, C., Pérez, P.: Geodesic image and video editing. ACM Trans. Graph. 29(5), 134 (2010). doi:10.1145/1857907.1857910

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Didas, S., Weickert, J.: Combining curvature motion and edge-preserving denoising. In: Proc. SSVM 2007. LNCS, vol. 4485, pp. 568–579. Springer, Berlin (2007). doi:10.1007/978-3-540-72823-8

    Google Scholar 

  15. Fabbri, R., Costa, L.D.F., Torelli, J.C., Bruno, O.M.: 2D Euclidean distance transform algorithms. ACM Comput. Surv. 40(1), 2 (2008). doi:10.1145/1322432.1322434

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Fischer, J., Bartz, D., Straber, W.: Stylized augmented reality for improved immersion. In: Proc. VR, pp. 195–202 (2005). doi:10.1109/VR.2005.1492774

    Google Scholar 

  17. Gastal, E.S.L., Oliveira, M.M.: Domain transform for edge-aware image and video processing. ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 69 (2011). doi:10.1145/2010324.1964964

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Gonzalez, R.C., Woods, R.E.: Digital Image Processing, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, New York (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  19. Gooch, B., Reinhard, E., Gooch, A.: Human facial illustrations: Creation and psychophysical evaluation. ACM Trans. Graph. 23(1), 27–44 (2004). doi:10.1145/966131.966133

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  20. Grayson, M.A.: The heat equation shrinks embedded plane curves to round points. J. Differ. Geom. 26(2), 285–314 (1987)

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  21. Guichard, F., Morel, J.M.: A note on two classical enhancement filters and their associated PDE’s. Int. J. Comput. Vis. 52(2), 153–160 (2003). doi:10.1023/A:1022904124348

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  22. Haralick, R.M.: Digital step edges from zero crossing of second directional derivatives. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 6(1), 58–68 (1984). doi:10.1109/TPAMI.1984.4767475

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  23. Haralick, R.M., Sternberg, S.R., Zhuang, X.: Image analysis using mathematical morphology. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 9(4), 532–550 (1987). doi:10.1109/TPAMI.1987.4767941

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  24. Kang, H., Lee, S.: Shape-simplifying image abstraction. Comput. Graph. Forum 27(7), 1773–1780 (2008). doi:10.1111/j.1467-8659.2008.01322.x

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  25. Kang, H., Lee, S., Chui, C.K.: Coherent line drawing. In: Proc. NPAR, pp. 43–50 (2007). doi:10.1145/1274871.1274878

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  26. Kang, H., Lee, S., Chui, C.K.: Flow-based image abstraction. IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 15(1), 62–76 (2009). doi:10.1109/TVCG.2008.81

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  27. Kim, D., Son, M., Lee, Y., Kang, H., Lee, S.: Feature-guided image stippling. Comput. Graph. Forum 27(4), 1209–1216 (2008). doi:10.1111/j.1467-8659.2008.01259.x

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  28. Kramer, H.P., Bruckner, J.B.: Iterations of a non-linear transformation for enhancement of digital images. Pattern Recognit. 7(1–2), 53–58 (1975)

    MathSciNet  MATH  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  29. Kuwahara, M., Hachimura, K., Ehiu, S., Kinoshita, M.: Processing of ri-angiocardiographic images. In: Digital Processing of Biomedical Images, pp. 187–203. Plenum, New York (1976)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  30. Kyprianidis, J.E.: Image and video abstraction by multi-scale anisotropic Kuwahara filtering. In: Proc. NPAR, pp. 55–64 (2011). doi:10.1145/2024676.2024686

    Google Scholar 

  31. Kyprianidis, J.E., Döllner, J.: Image abstraction by structure adaptive filtering. In: Proc. EG UK TPCG, pp. 51–58 (2008). doi:10.2312/LocalChapterEvents/TPCG/TPCG08/051-058

    Google Scholar 

  32. Kyprianidis, J.E., Döllner, J.: Real-time image abstraction by directed filtering. In: ShaderX7, pp. 285–302. Charles River Media, London (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  33. Kyprianidis, J.E., Kang, H.: Image and video abstraction by coherence-enhancing filtering. Comput. Graph. Forum 30(2), 593–602 (2011). doi:10.1111/j.1467-8659.2011.01882.x

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  34. Kyprianidis, J.E., Kang, H., Döllner, J.: Image and video abstraction by anisotropic Kuwahara filtering. Comput. Graph. Forum 28(7), 1955–1963 (2009). doi:10.1111/j.1467-8659.2009.01574.x

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  35. Kyprianidis, J.E., Kang, H., Döllner, J.: Anisotropic Kuwahara filtering on the GPU. In: GPUPro, pp. 247–264. AK Peters, Wellesley (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  36. Kyprianidis, J.E., Semmo, A., Kang, H., Döllner, J.: Anisotropic Kuwahara filtering with polynomial weighting functions. In: Proc. EG UK TPCG, pp. 25–30 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  37. Lee, H., Seo, S., Ryoo, S., Yoon, K.: Directional texture transfer. In: Proc. NPAR, pp. 43–50 (2010). doi:10.1145/1809939.1809945

    Google Scholar 

  38. Maragos, P., Schafer, R.: Morphological filters—Part I: Their set-theoretic analysis and relations to linear shift-invariant filters. IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 35(8), 1153–1169 (1987). doi:10.1109/TASSP.1987.1165259

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  39. Maragos, P., Schafer, R.: Morphological filters—Part II: Their relations to median, order-statistic, and stack filters. IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 35(8), 1170–1184 (1987). doi:10.1109/TASSP.1987.1165254

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  40. Marr, D., Hildreth, R.C.: Theory of edge detection. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biol. Sci. 207, 187–217 (1980)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  41. Orzan, A., Bousseau, A., Barla, P., Thollot, J.: Structure-preserving manipulation of photographs. In: Proc. NPAR, pp. 103–110 (2007)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  42. Osher, S., Rudin, L.I.: Feature-oriented image enhancement using shock filters. SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 27(4), 919–940 (1990). doi:10.1137/0727053

    MATH  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  43. Papari, G., Petkov, N.: Continuous glass patterns for painterly rendering. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 18(3), 652–664 (2009). doi:10.1109/TIP.2008.2009800

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  44. Papari, G., Petkov, N., Campisi, P.: Artistic edge and corner enhancing smoothing. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 16(10), 2449–2462 (2007). doi:10.1109/TIP.2007.903912

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  45. Paris, S., Kornprobst, P., Tumblin, J., Durand, F.: Bilateral filtering: theory and applications. Found. Trends Comput. Graph. Vis. 4(1), 7–73 (2009). doi:10.1561/0600000020

    Google Scholar 

  46. Perona, P., Malik, J.: Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629–639 (1990). doi:10.1109/34.56205

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  47. Pham, T.Q., van Vliet, L.J.: Separable bilateral filtering for fast video preprocessing. In: Proc. ICME, pp. 454–457 (2005). doi:10.1109/ICME.2005.1521458

    Google Scholar 

  48. Porikli, F.: Constant time O(1) bilateral filtering. In: Proc. CVPR, pp. 1–8 (2008). doi:10.1109/CVPR.2008.4587843

    Google Scholar 

  49. Pratt, W.K.: Digital Image Processing, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York (2001). doi:10.1002/0471221325

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  50. Son, M., Lee, Y., Kang, H., Lee, S.: Structure grid for directional stippling. Graph. Models 73(3), 74–87 (2011). doi:10.1016/j.gmod.2010.12.001

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  51. Sýkora, D., Buriánek, J., Žára, J.: Colorization of black-and-white cartoons. Image Vis. Comput. 23(9), 767–782 (2005). doi:10.1016/j.imavis.2005.05.010

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  52. Tomasi, C., Manduchi, R.: Bilateral filtering for gray and color images. In: Proc. ICCV, pp. 839–846 (1998). doi:10.1109/ICCV.1998.710815

    Google Scholar 

  53. Torre, V., Poggio, T.A.: On edge detection. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(2), 147–163 (1986). doi:10.1109/TPAMI.1986.4767769

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  54. van den Boomgaard, R.: Decomposition of the Kuwahara–Nagao operator in terms of linear smoothing and morphological sharpening. In: Proc. ISMM, pp. 283–292. CSIRO, Collingwood (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  55. Weickert, J.: Anisotropic Diffusion in Image Processing. Teubner, Leipzig (1998)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  56. Weickert, J.: Coherence-enhancing diffusion of colour images. Image Vis. Comput. 17(3), 201–212 (1999)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  57. Weickert, J.: Coherence-enhancing shock filters. In: DAGM-Symposium, pp. 1–8. Springer, Berlin (2003). doi:10.1007/978-3-540-45243-0_1

    Google Scholar 

  58. Wikipedia: Expressionism—Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  59. Winnemöller, H.: XDoG: Advanced image stylization with eXtended difference-of-Gaussians. In: Proc. NPAR, pp. 147–155 (2011). doi:10.1145/2024676.2024700

    Google Scholar 

  60. Winnemöller, H., Olsen, S.C., Gooch, B.: Real-time video abstraction. In: Proc. SIGGRAPH, pp. 1221–1226 (2006). doi:10.1145/1141911.1142018

    Google Scholar 

  61. Winnemöller, H., Kyprianidis, J.E., Olsen, S.C.: XDoG: an extended difference-of-Gaussians compendium including advanced image stylization. Comput. Graph. 36(6), 740–753 (2012). doi:10.1016/j.cag.2012.03.004

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  62. Wyszecki, G., Stiles, W.S.: Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae. Wiley-Interscience, New York (1982)

    Google Scholar 

  63. Young, R.A.: The Gaussian derivative model for spatial vision: I. Retinal mechanisms. Spat. Vis. 2(4), 273–293 (1987). doi:10.1163/156856887X00222

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jan Eric Kyprianidis .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2013 Springer-Verlag London

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Kyprianidis, J.E. (2013). Artistic Stylization by Nonlinear Filtering. In: Rosin, P., Collomosse, J. (eds) Image and Video-Based Artistic Stylisation. Computational Imaging and Vision, vol 42. Springer, London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4519-6_5

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4519-6_5

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, London

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4471-4518-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4471-4519-6

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)