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Chronic and End-Stage Heart Failure

  • Gabriel Sayer
  • Marc J. Semigran
  • Marc J. Semigran
Chapter

Abstract

Chronic heart failure (HF) is a common manifestation of cardiovascular (CV) disease, affecting more than six million adults in the United States. Despite overall improvements in cardiovascular health, the incidence of HF has remained stable due to the aging of the population as well as improved survival following myocardial infarction (MI). Among patients over the age of 65, the incidence of HF is approximately 1 % annually. Major advances have occurred in the understanding of HF pathophysiology and treatment, leading to significant declines in HF-related mortality. However, it remains a cause of significant morbidity and mortality, resulting in more than one million hospitalizations and 50,000 deaths annually.

Keywords

Heart Failure Right Ventricular Chronic Heart Failure Pulmonary Vascular Resistance Left Ventricular Assist Device 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACEI

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

AF

Atrial fibrillation

AHA

American Heart Association

ARB

Angiotensin-receptor blocker

BB

Beta-blocker

BMI

Body mass index

BNP

B-type natriuretic peptide

BTT

Bridge to transplantation

CAD

Coronary artery disease

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CO

Cardiac output

CPET

Cardiopulmonary exercise test

Cr

Creatinine

CV

Cardiovascular

DT

Destination Therapy

HCM

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

HDZ

Hydralazine

HF

Heart failure

HFpEF

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

HFrEF

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

HTN

Hypertension

IABP

Intra-aortic balloon pump

ICD

Implantable cardiac defibrillator

ISDN

Isosorbide dinitrate

JVP

Jugular venous pressure

K

Potassium

LV

Left ventricular

LVAD

Left ventricular assist device

LVEF

Left ventricular ejection fraction

LVH

Left ventricular hypertrophy

MCS

Mechanical circulatory support

MI

Myocardial infarction

NIDCM

Nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy

NYHA

New York Heart Association

PH

Pulmonary hypertension

PVR

Pulmonary vascular resistance

RHC

Right heart catheterization

RRR

Relative risk reduction

RV

Right ventricular

RVEF

Right ventricular ejection fraction

SCD

Sudden cardiac death

TPG

Transpulmonary gradient

TTE

Transthoracic echocardiogram

VO2

Peak oxygen consumption

WU

Woods Units

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel Sayer
    • 1
  • Marc J. Semigran
    • 2
  • Marc J. Semigran
    • 3
  1. 1.Harvard Medical School Cardiology Division, Department of MedicineMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplant Program, Cardiology Division, Department of MedicineMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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