Chronic and End-Stage Heart Failure

  • Gabriel Sayer
  • Marc J. Semigran
  • Marc J. Semigran


Chronic heart failure (HF) is a common manifestation of cardiovascular (CV) disease, affecting more than six million adults in the United States. Despite overall improvements in cardiovascular health, the incidence of HF has remained stable due to the aging of the population as well as improved survival following myocardial infarction (MI). Among patients over the age of 65, the incidence of HF is approximately 1 % annually. Major advances have occurred in the understanding of HF pathophysiology and treatment, leading to significant declines in HF-related mortality. However, it remains a cause of significant morbidity and mortality, resulting in more than one million hospitalizations and 50,000 deaths annually.


Heart Failure Right Ventricular Chronic Heart Failure Pulmonary Vascular Resistance Left Ventricular Assist Device 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Angiotensin-converting enzyme


Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor


Atrial fibrillation


American Heart Association


Angiotensin-receptor blocker




Body mass index


B-type natriuretic peptide


Bridge to transplantation


Coronary artery disease


Cyclic adenosine monophosphate


Cardiac output


Cardiopulmonary exercise test






Destination Therapy


Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy




Heart failure


Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction


Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction




Intra-aortic balloon pump


Implantable cardiac defibrillator


Isosorbide dinitrate


Jugular venous pressure




Left ventricular


Left ventricular assist device


Left ventricular ejection fraction


Left ventricular hypertrophy


Mechanical circulatory support


Myocardial infarction


Nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy


New York Heart Association


Pulmonary hypertension


Pulmonary vascular resistance


Right heart catheterization


Relative risk reduction


Right ventricular


Right ventricular ejection fraction


Sudden cardiac death


Transpulmonary gradient


Transthoracic echocardiogram


Peak oxygen consumption


Woods Units


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel Sayer
    • 1
  • Marc J. Semigran
    • 2
  • Marc J. Semigran
    • 3
  1. 1.Harvard Medical School Cardiology Division, Department of MedicineMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplant Program, Cardiology Division, Department of MedicineMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

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