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Engineering DNA Vaccines for Cancer Therapy

  • Brian M. Olson
  • Douglas G. McNeel
Chapter

Abstract

An anti-tumor DNA vaccine is a bacterial DNA plasmid that encodes the cDNA of a tumor antigen, which when injected into recipients can elicit humoral and/or cellular immunity against tumor cells expressing the encoded antigen. Dozens of DNA vaccines have entered clinical trials for a variety of malignancies, where they have demonstrated efficacy in eliciting immune responses and potential clinical responses. This is further demonstrated by the approval of a DNA vaccine for the treatment of canine melanoma, the first vaccine approved for the treatment of cancer. One of the primary advantages of DNA vaccines as opposed to some other methods of antigen delivery is that they can be easily constructed, purified, and delivered to recipients. Additionally, these vaccines can be easily modified to incorporate various elements that can enhance anti-tumor immune responses. In this review, we discuss engineering efforts to enhance the immune and anti-tumor efficacy of DNA vaccines, focusing on specific changes that can be made to the DNA backbone to enhance the expression, processing, and presentation of the encoded antigen, as well as improving the inherent immunogenicity of the vaccine itself.

Keywords

West Nile Virus Bacterial Vaccine Pest Sequence Host APCs Canine Melanoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

APC

Antigen-presenting cell

CMV IE

Cytomegalovirus immediate–early

CTL

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte

DC

Dendritic cell

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

GM-CSF

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HRPC

Hormone-refractory prostate cancer

HPV

Human papillomavirus

HSP

Heat-shock protein

IL

Interleukin

MHC

Major histocompatibility antigen

NK

Natural killer

PAP

Prostatic acid phosphatase

Poly-A

Poly-adenylation

PSA

Prostate-specific antigen

PSMA

Prostate-specific membrane antigen

TH

T helper cell

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Wisconsin Institutes for Medical ResearchUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

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