Soft Tissue, Trauma and Orthopedic Infections

  • Hilary Humphreys
  • Bob Winter
  • Mical Paul
Chapter

Abstract

Trauma, especially that following road traffic accidents and penetrating injuries arising from gun shots often require admission to a critical care unit. The relative numbers depend upon the nature of the critical care facility and its location, e.g. proximity to major road complexes which may facilitate the transfer of multiple trauma patients to a particular centre. The complications arising from such admissions will vary depending upon the age, underlying disease and the extent of the trauma.

Keywords

Vancomycin Staphylococcus Cephalosporin Metronidazole Endocarditis 

References

  1. 1.
    Cairns S, Reilly J, Booth M. Prevalence of healthcare-associated infection in Scottish intensive care units. J Hosp Infect. 2010;76:308–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marwick C, Broomhall J, McCowan C, et al. Severity assessment of skin and soft tissue infections: cohort study of management and outcomes for hospitalised patients. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011; 66: 387–97.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morgan MS. Diagnosis and management of necrotising fasciitis: a multiparametric approach. J Hosp Infect. 2010;75:249–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sarani B, Strong M, Pascual J, Schwab CW. Necrotizing fasciitis: current concepts and review of the literature. J Am Coll Surg. 2009;208:279–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anaya DA, Dellinger EP. Necrotising soft-tissue infection: diagnosis and management. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:705–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Darenberg J, Ihendyane N, Sjölin J, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin G therapy in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: a European randomized, double placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:333–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brown CN, Pollard TCB, Iyer S, Andrade AJ. Invasive group A streptococcal infection. An update on the epidemiology and orthopaedic management. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010;92:763–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Daneman N, McGeer A, Low DE, et al. Hospital-acquired invasive Group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada, 1992–2000. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:3348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    David MZ, Daum RS. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology and clinical consequences of an emerging epidemic. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010;23:616–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thwaini A, Khan A, Malik A, et al. Fournier’s gangrene and its emergency management. Postgrad Med J. 2006;82:516–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Reynolds SC, Chow AW. Severe soft tissue infections of the head and neck: a primer for critical care physicians. Lung. 2009;187:271–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Avni T, Levcovich A, Al-Ei DD, Leibovici L, Paul M. Prophylactic antibiotics for burns patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br Med J. 2010;340:c208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang C, Schwaitzberg S, Berliner E, Zarin DA, Lau J. Hyperbaric oxygen for treating wounds. A systematic review of the literature. Arch Surg. 2003;138:272–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lazarus HL, Fox J, Lloyd JF, et al. A six-year descriptive study of hospital-associated infection in trauma patients: demographics, injury features, and infection patterns. Surg Infect. 2007;8:463–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Calhoun JH, Murray CK, Manring MM. Multidrug-resistant organisms in military wounds from Iraq and Afghanistan. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:1356–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Walsh TR. Emerging carbapenemases: a global perspective. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;36(S3):S8–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shadgan B, Menon M, Sanders D, et al. Current thinking about acute compartment syndrome of the lower extremity. Can J Surg. 2010;53:329–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Salmerόn-Escobar JI, del Amo Fernández de Velasco A, de Velasco A. Antibiotic prophylaxis in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2006;11:E292–6.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Butalia S, Palda VA, Sargeant RJ, Detsky AS, Mourad O. Does this patient with diabetes have osteomyelitis of the lower extremity? J Am Med Assoc. 2008;299:806–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Termaat MF, Raijmakers PG, Scholten HJ, Bakker FC, Patka P, Haarman HJ. The accuracy of diagnostic imaging for the assessment of chronic osteomyelitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:2464–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mathews CJ, Weston VC, Jones A, Field M, Coakley G. Bacterial septic arthritis in adults. Lancet. 2010;375:846–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mathews CJ, Kingsley G, Field M, et al. Management of septic arthritis: a systematic review. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66:440–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McHugh SM, Collins C, Corrigan MA, Hill AD, Humphreys H. The role of topical antibiotics as prophylaxis in surgical site infection prevention. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:693–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Del Pozo JL, Patel R. Infection associated with prosthetic joints. N Eng J Med. 2009;361:787–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moran E, Byren I, Atkins BL. The diagnosis and management of prosthetic joint infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65 Suppl 3:iii45–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cobo J, Miguel LG, Euba G, et al. Early prosthetic joint infection: outcomes with debridement and implant retention followed by antibiotic therapy. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:1632–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hilary Humphreys
    • 1
  • Bob Winter
    • 2
  • Mical Paul
    • 3
  1. 1.Beaumont Hospital The Royal College of Surgeons in IrelandDublinIreland
  2. 2.Queen’s Medical Centre University Hospital NottinghamNottinghamUK
  3. 3.Rabin Medical Center Beilinson Hospital Unit of Infectious Diseases Sackler Faculty of Medicine Tel-Aviv UniversityPetach Tikva/Tel-AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations