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Exergy Evaluation of Petroleum Production and Refining Processes

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Exergy

Part of the book series: Green Energy and Technology ((GREEN))

Abstract

This chapter deals with the application of exergy analysis to primary and refining petroleum processes due to the important exergy consumption they require. It describes the exergy and thermoeconomic analysis of an offshore platform. The comparative performance of two artificial lift systems is presented and discussed in detail through a scenario of 25 years of operation. A utilities plant of a petroleum refinery is studied in order to characterize its exergy and cost interactions with the hydrocarbons derived production processes, such as the combined distillation, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), delayed coking, hydrotreating (HDT), hydrogen generation, and sulfur recovery. The hydrogen production in a petroleum refinery to purify diesel oil, based on the steam reforming of natural gas, is analyzed in detail to evaluate its thermodynamic performance as well as to describe the cost formation of the produced hydrogen.

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Abbreviations

AC:

Air compressor

b :

Specific exergy (kJ/kg)

bpd:

Barrels per day

B :

Exergy rate/flow rate of a substance/product (kW)

C i :

Net monetary rate value, cost rate of a substance, product or equipment (US$/year, US$/s)

c i :

Exergy specific cost of a substance or product (kJ/kJ, US$/kJ, US$/kWh, US$/t)

f i :

Relation between the exergy consumed in the module, i and in the whole plant

f a :

Capital recovery factor

f l :

Load factor

f omf :

Operational and maintenance fixed cost factor

f omv :

Operational and maintenance variable cost factor

h, H:

Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg), enthalpy rate (kW)

ΔH :

Enthalpy variation between reactants and combustion products (kJ/kg)

I :

Cost (US$)

m :

Mass flow rate (kg/s)

P :

Pressure (bar)

P 0 :

Environment pressure (kPa)

Q :

Heat transfer rate (kW)

R :

Gas constant (kJ/kg K)

s, S:

Specific entropy (kJ/kgK), entropy rate (kW/K)

ΔS :

Entropy variation between reactants and combustion products (kJ/kgK)

T 0 :

Environment temperature (°C)

W :

Power (kW)

x :

Weight factor

α, β, γ:

Stoichiometric coefficients

α:

Relation between chemical exergy and lower heating value

Δ:

Variation

η:

Efficiency

θ:

Carnot factor (1 − T o/T)

ρm :

Specific gas consumption

aeq:

Annual equipment cost

air:

Air

av:

Average

b:

Exergy

bb:

Exergy based

bo:

Boiler

bo, fu:

Boiler fuel

bt:

Time based

cgbo, fu:

Fuel gas for boiler

cgtg:

Fuel gas for gas turbine

ch:

Chemical

ci:

Turbine condenser

cm:

Compression module

cold:

Cold fluid

condensed:

Condensed

comp:

Compressor

comp, i:

Compressor inlet

comp, o:

Compressor outlet

cw:

Cooling tower

dest:

Destroyed

e:

Electricity

eg:

Exhaust gas

electric:

Electric

eq:

Equipment

equip:

Equipment

extraction:

Extraction

f:

Furnace

fw:

Feed water

fu, fuel:

Fuel

g:

Gas

gas:

Gas

g, bo:

Gas sent to the boiler

g, gt:

Gas sent to the gas turbine

gs:

Gas at separator outlet

ger:

Generated

g0:

Reference for the calculation of gas exergy

gs:

Gas at the exit of the separator

gt:

Gas turbine

gt, fu:

Gas turbine fuel

h :

Heating, heater

he:

Heat exchanger

he, i:

Heat exchanger inlet

he, o:

Heat exchanger outlet

hot:

Hot fluid

i :

Indicates a flow or a module, inlet, component i

in:

Inlet

i0:

Reference for the calculation of substance i exergy

m:

Number of carbon atoms

mb:

Mass based

mechanical:

Mechanical

min:

Minimum

n:

Number of hydrogen molecules

o:

Oil, reference for the calculation of exergy

o0:

Reference for the calculation of oil exergy

os:

Oil at the exit of the separator

out:

Outlet

overall:

Considering the whole plant

p :

Petroleum

pm :

Pumping module

P 0 :

Reference for the calculation of petroleum exergy

prod:

Product

pu:

Pump

pu, i:

Pump inlet

pu, o:

Pump outlet

rec:

Heat recovery system

s:

Outlet

sep:

Separator, separation process

steam:

Steam

t:

Turbine

tb:

time basis

valv, tg:

Gas turbine fuel expansion valve

valv, bo:

Boiler fuel expansion valve

w, water:

Water

w0:

Reference for the calculation of water exergy

wp:

Water pump

0:

standard

wf:

Without supplementary fuel

sf:

With supplementary fuel

B:

Boiler

DEA:

Deaerator

E:

Electricity

FCC:

Fluidized catalytic cracking

FG:

Fuel gas

FO:

Fuel oil

GT:

Gas turbine

HDT:

Hydro-treatment

HP:

High pressure

HT:

Heat transfer

IP:

Intermediate pressure

LHV:

Lower heating value

LP:

Low pressure

LPG:

Liquefied petroleum gas

NG:

Natural gas

MP:

Mechanical Power

PSA:

Pressure swing adsorption

RB:

Recovery boiler

ST:

Steam

T:

Steam turbine

US$:

American dollar

V:

Valve

W:

Water

WTP:

Water treatment process

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de Oliveira, S. (2013). Exergy Evaluation of Petroleum Production and Refining Processes. In: Exergy. Green Energy and Technology. Springer, London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4165-5_4

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4165-5_4

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