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Exergy and Thermoeconomic Analysis of Power Plants, Refrigeration and Polygeneration Systems

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Exergy

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Abstract

The exergy and thermoeconomic analysis of components of power plants, refrigeration and polygeneration systems is presented and discussed to characterize the performance of such systems as well as to determine their products cost formation processes. Based on the general formulation of efficiency, presented in Chap. 2, the expressions of the exergy-based performance parameters of the components of these systems are derived. These concepts are applied to evaluate the electricity cost formation of a combined cycle power plant, and the comparative performance and production costs of steam and electricity of cogeneration plants configurations for chemical and dairy industries. Finally a comparative exergoeconomic study of trigeneration systems to produce electricity, steam, and chilled water is described and discussed.

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Abbreviations

b :

Specific exergy (kJ/kg)

B :

Exergy rate (kW)

c :

Specific cost (US$/kWh, US$/kJ or US$/t)

C :

Cost rate ($/s)

C oi :

Cost of equipment i (US$)

C equip,i :

Equipment i cost rate (US$/s)

COP:

Coefficient of performance

C turb :

Steam turbine cost rate (US$/s)

E :

Energy rate (kW)

f :

The fraction of the rejected heat of the heat engine that is sent to the refrigeration system

f i :

Ratio of the exergy supplied to component i to the exergy consumed by the whole plant

f l :

Load factor

f om :

Annual operational and maintenance factor

f t :

Time factor

I :

Investment cost rate (US$/h)

LHV:

Lower heating value (kJ/kg)

m :

Mass flow rate (kg/s)

n :

Annual interest rate

N h :

8760 h/year

P :

pressure (bar)

P o :

Reference pressure (bar)

Q :

Heat rate (kW)

r :

Capital recovery period (year); parameter defined by Eq. 3.24

T o :

Reference temperature (K)

W :

Power (kW)

α :

Relation between chemical exergy and lower heating value

β :

Relation between heat rate and power

Δ:

Variation

η b :

Exergy efficiency

η e :

Energy efficiency

θ, \( \overline{{{\uptheta}}} \):

Carnot factor, average Carnot factor

abs:

Absorption refrigerating system

air:

Combustion air

b:

Exergy

c:

Compressor

cc:

Combined cycle; combustion chamber

cd:

Condenser

chilled water:

Related to chilled water

cp:

Compressor

cpi:

Compressor inlet

cpo:

Compressor outlet

crs:

Compression refrigerating system

e:

Electricity, Energy

ev:

Evaporator

excess:

Excess electricity

eg:

Exhaust gas

equip:

Equipment

fuel:

Related to fuel

fuelcc:

Fuel consumption in the gas turbine combustion chamber

fuelhrsg:

Fuel consumption in the heat recovery steam generator

G:

Related to the whole plant

gas:

Natural gas

gases:

Combustion gases

ge:

Generator of the absorption chiller

gt:

Gas turbine

hrsg:

Heat recovery steam generator

i :

Inlet, component i

o:

Outlet

overall:

Related to the whole plant

proc:

Process

p:

Pump; process

pump:

Pump

pump i:

Pump inlet

pump o:

Pump outlet

plant:

Related to plant

process:

Related to process

products:

Combustion products

p1:

Steam demanded by process 1

p2:

Steam demanded by process 2

q, Q:

Heat/chilled water

sb:

supplementary burning

sc:

Steam cycle

st:

Steam turbine

steam:

Steam

t :

Turbine

ti:

Turbine inlet

to:

Turbine outlet

ABS:

Absorption chiller

CC:

Combustion chamber

CHP:

combined heat and power unit

COND:

Condenser

CONDP:

Condensate pump

CIRCP:

Circulating pump

CP:

Air compressor

CT:

Combustion turbine

CT:

Cooling tower

D:

Duct, Dimension

DB:

Supplementary firing module

DEAR:

Deaerator

ECON:

Economizer

EVAP:

Evaporator

FH:

Fuel heater

GEEq :

Gas engine with equality method

GT:

Gas turbine; turbine of the gas turbine

GTEq :

Gas turbine with equality method

GTEx :

Gas turbine with extraction method

HP:

High pressure

HPCON:

High pressure economizer

HPECO2:

High pressure economizer 2

HPEVAP:

High pressure evaporator

HPPUMP:

High pressure feed pump

HPSHR:

High pressure superheater

HPSHT1:

High pressure superheater 1

HPST:

High pressure section

HRSG:

Heat recovery steam generator

IP:

Intermediate pressure

IPCON:

Intermediate pressure economizer

IPPUMP:

Intermediate pressure feed pump

IPST:

Intermediate pressure section

IPSHT:

Intermediate pressure superheater

IPSTH2:

Intermediate pressure superheater 2

IPVAP:

Intermediate pressure evaporator

LP:

Low pressure

LPEVAP:

Low pressure evaporator

LPSHT:

Low pressure superheater

LPST:

Low pressure section

MMBtu:

106 Btu

OOC:

Original operating condition

P:

Pump

RH:

Reheater

SHT:

Superheater

ST:

Steam Turbine

STEq :

Steam turbine with equality method

STEx :

Steam turbine with extraction method

TCR:

Total cost rate (US$/h)

TR:

Ton of refrigeration (3.5 kW)

WTHT:

Water heater

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de Oliveira, S. (2013). Exergy and Thermoeconomic Analysis of Power Plants, Refrigeration and Polygeneration Systems. In: Exergy. Green Energy and Technology. Springer, London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4165-5_3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4165-5_3

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