Advertisement

The Corneal Disc

  • William R. Lee

Abstract

While a corneal transplant is the most advantageous form of homograft, success cannot always be guaranteed and we are now entering the era of repeated procedures and these have a progressively worse prognosis for visual outcome (Patel et al. 2000). Initially, excised host corneal tissue, optimally fixed, provided an excellent opportunity for the morphological and histochemical study of common and rare causes of corneal opacification and this was also relevant to the future management of a patient suffering from bilateral disease. At the present time the clinical diagnosis is frequently accurate and it might be argued that histopathology is not necessary in every routine case. However, there is still a good argument for routine examination of keratoplasty discs even though there is a confident clinical diagnosis. For example, heavily inflamed and vascularised tissue detected in the excised cornea indicates the presence of a similar process in the surrounding corneal rim of the recipient bed and this enhances the risk of immune rejection.

Keywords

Amniotic Membrane Corneal Endothelium Corneal Stroma Corneal Dystrophy Acanthamoeba Keratitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adamis AP, Filatov V, Tripathi BJ, Tripathi RC (1993) Fuchs endothelial dystrophy of the cornea. Sury Ophthalmol 38:149–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Affra RC, Avni I, Ishibashi Y, Robin J, Kaufman H (1985) Calcofluor and ink-potassium hydroxide preparations for identifying fungi, Am J Ophthalmol 100:719–723Google Scholar
  3. Afshari NA, Mullally JE, Afshari MA, Steinert RF et al. (2001) Survey of patients with granular, lattice, Avellino, and Reis-Buckler’s corneal dystrophies for mutations in the BIGH3 and gelsolin genes. Arch Ophthalmol 119:16–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aitken DA, Beirouty ZA, Lee WR (1995) Ultrastructural study of the corneal epithelium in the recurrent erosion syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol 79:282–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akhtar S, Meek KM, Ridgway AE, Bonshek RE, Bron AJ. (1999) Deposits and proteoglycan changes in primary and recurrent granular dystrophy of the cornea. Arch Ophthalmol 117:310–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Akova YA, Kirkness CM, McCartney AC, Ficker LA, Rice NSC, Steele A D McG (1990) Recurrent macular corneal dystrophy following penetrating keratoplasty. Eye 4:698–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alexandrakis G, Palma LA, Miller D, Alfonso EC (2000) Capnocytophagia keratitis. Ophthalmology 107:1503–1506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alvarado JG, Murphy CG, Maglio M, Hetherington J (1986) Pathogenesis of Chandler’s syndrome, essential iris atrophy and the Cogan-Reese syndrome. 1 Alterations of the corneal endothelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 27:853–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Alvarado JA, Underwood JL, Green WR, Wu S, Murphy CG, Hwang DG, Moore TE, O’Day D (1994) Detection of herpes simplex viral DNA in the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 112: 1601–1609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Amano S, Oshika T, Kaji Y, Numaga J, Matsubara M, Araie M (1999) Herpes simplex virus in the trabeculum of an eye with corneal endotheliitis Am J Ophthalmol 127:721–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Anderson JA, Binder PS, Rock ME, Vrabec MP (1996) Human excimer laser keratectomy. Arch Ophthalmol 114:54–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Armitage JW, Easty DL (1997) Factors influencing the suitability of organ-cultured corneas for transplantation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 38:16–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Assil KK, Quantock AJ (1993) Wound healing in response to keratorefractive surgery. Sury Ophthalmol 38:289–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bains RA, Stern RM, Tokarewicz AC Willis RN, Heathcote JG (1994) Posterior stromal changes following acute corneal hydrops in keratoconus. Can J Ophthalmol 29:22–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Barchiesi BJ, Eckel RH, Ellis PP (1991) The cornea and disorders of lipid metabolism. Sury Ophthalmol 36:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Binder PS, Rock ME, Schmidt KC, Anderson JA (1991) High-voltage electron microscopy of normal human cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 32:2234–2243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Binder PS, Anderson JA, Rock ME, Vrabec MP (1994) Human excimer laser keratectomy. Clinical and histopathologic correlations. Ophthalmology 101:979–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Biswas S, Suresh P, Bonshek RE, Corbitt G, Tullo AB, Ridgway AE (2000) Graft failure in human donor corneas due to transmission of herpes simplex virus. Br J Ophthalmol 84:701–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Borderie VM, Baudrimont M, Vallee A, Ereau TL, Gray F, Laroche L (2000) Corneal endothelial cell apoptosis in patients with Fuchs’ dystrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:2501–2505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Boruchoff SA, Weiner MJ, Albert DM (1990) Recurrence of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy after penetrating keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol 109:323–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bourne WM, Kyle RA, Brubaker RF, Griepp PR (1989) Incidence of the corneal crystals in the monoclonal gammopathies. Am J Ophthalmol 107:192–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bourne WM, Hodge DO, McLaren JW (1999) Estimation of corneal endothelial pump function in long-term contact lens wearers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 40:603–611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bron AJ (1988) Keratoconus. Eye 7:163–169Google Scholar
  24. Brown D, Chwa M, Escobar M, Kenney MC (1991) Characterisation of the major matrix degrading metalloproteinase of human corneal stroma. Evidence for an enzyme/inhibitor complex. Exp Eye Res 52:5–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Browning DJ, Proia AD (1986) Ocular rosacea. Sury Ophthalmol 31:145–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bullington RH, Lanier JD, Font RL (1992) Non tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis. Arch Ophthalmol 110:519–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Butler TKH, Dua HS, Edwards R, Lowe JS (2001) In vitro model of infectious crystalline keratopathy: tissue architecture determines pattern of microbial spread. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:1243–1246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Callaghan M, Hand CK, Kennedy SM (1999) Homozygosity mapping and linkage analysis demonstrate that autosomal recessive congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) and autosomal dominant CHED are genetically distinct. Br J Ophthalmol 83:115–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cameron JA (1995) Shield ulcers and plaques of the cornea in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Ophthalmology 102:985–993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chan W-K, Hunt KE, Glasgow BJ, Mondino BJ (1996) Corneal scarring after photorefractive keratoplasty. Am J Ophthalmol 121:570–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chau GK, Dilly SA, Sheard CE, Rostron CK (1992) Deep lamellar keratoplasty on air with lyophilised tissue. Br J Ophthalmol 76:646–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chen HJ, Pires RT, Tseng SC (2000) Amniotic membrane transplantation for severe neurotrophic corneal ulcers. Br J Ophthalmol 84:826–833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chu W (2000) The past twenty five years in eye banking. Cornea 19:754–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Collier SA, Madigan MC, Penfold PL (2000) Expression of membranetype 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and MMP-2 in normal and keratoconus corneas. Curr Eye Res 21:662–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Davis RM, Font RL, Keisler MS, Shadduck JA (1990) Corneal micro-sporidiosis. Ophthalmology 97:953–957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Daya SM, Bell RW, Habib NE, Powell-Richards A, Dua HS (2000) Clinical and pathologic findings in human keratolimbal allograft rejection. Cornea 19:443–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Diaz-Valle D, Benitez del Castillo JM, Castillo A, Sayagues O, Banares A, Garcia-Sanchez J. (1998) Immunologic and clinical evaluation of post-surgical necrotizing sclerocorneal ulceration. Cornea 17:371–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dighiero P, Valleix S, D’Hermies F, Drunat S et al. (2000) Clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural features of the corneal dystrophy caused by the R124L mutation of the BIGH3 gene. Ophthalmology 107: 1353–1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dobbins KR, Price FW, Whitson WE (2000) Trends in the indications for penetrating keratoplasty in the mid-western United States. Cornea. 19:813–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dua HS, Azuara-Blanco A (2000) Limbal stem cells of the corneal epithelium. Sury Ophthalmol 44:415–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dua HS, Azuara-Blanco A, Hossain M, Lloyd J (1998) Non-acanthameba amebic keratitis. Cornea 17:675–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Edward DP, Thonar EJ, Srinivasan M, Yue BJ, Tso MO (1990) Macular dystrophy of the cornea. A systemic disorder of keratan sulfate metabolism. Ophthalmology 97:1194–1200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Folberg R, Stone EM, Sheffield VC, Mathers WD (1994) The relationship between granular, lattice type I, and Avellino corneal dystrophies. A histopathologic study. Arch Ophthalmol 112:1080–1085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Font RL, Samaha AN, Keener MJ, Chevez-Barrios P, Goosey JD. (2000) Corneal microsporidiosis. Report of case, including electron microscopic observations. Ophthalmology 107:1769–1775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ford JG, Huang AJW, Pflugfelder SC, Alfonso EC, Foster RK, Miller D (1998) Nontuberculous mycobacterial keratitis in South Florida. Ophthalmology 105:1652–1658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Foulks GN, Hatchell DL, Proia AD, Klintworth GK (1991) Histopathology of silicone oil keratopathy in humans. Cornea 10:29–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fountain TR, de la Cruz Z, Green WR, Stark WJ, Azar DT (1994) Reassembly of corneal epithelial adhesion structures after excimer laser keratectomy in humans. Arch Ophthalmol 112:967–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Freegard TJ (1997) The physical basis of transparency of the normal cornea. Eye 11:465–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Garana RM, Petroll WM, Chen W-T, Herman IM et al. (1992) Radial keratotomy. II Role of the myofibroblast in corneal wound contraction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 33:3271–3282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Garner A (1993) Pathogenesis of acanthamoeba keratitis: hypothesis based on a histological analysis of 30 cases. Br J Ophthalmol 77: 366–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Garner A, Kirkness CM (1988) Corneal gammopathy. Cornea 7:44–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Garrana RM, Zieske JD, Assouline M, Gipson IK (1999) Matrix metalloproteinases in epithelia from human recurrent corneal erosion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 40:1266–1270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Glasgow BJ, Brown HN, Aizuss DH Mondino BJ, Foos RY (1988) Traumatic dehiscence of incisions seven years after radial keratotomy. Am J Ophthalmol 106:692–695Google Scholar
  54. Gottsch JD, Liu SH, Minkovitz JB, Goodman DF, Srinivasan M, Stark WJ (1995) Autoimmunity to a cornea-associated stromal antigen in patients with Mooren’s ulcer. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 36:1541–1547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Guyer DR, Barraquer J, McDonnell PJ, Green WR (1987) Terrien’s marginal degeneration: clinicopathologic case reports. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 225:19–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hanna KD, Pouliquen YM, Waring GO, Savodelli M, Fantes F, Thompson KP (1992) Corneal wound healing in monkeys after repeated excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy. Arch Ophthalmol 110:1286–1291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hendricks RL (1997) An immunologist’s view of herpes simplex keratitis: Thygeson Lecture. Cornea 16:503–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hidayat AA, Margo CE, Mauriello JA, North I (1992) Lipofuscinosis of the cornea. A clinicopathologic study of three cases. Ophthalmology 99:1796–1804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hirst LW, Bancroft J, Yamauchi K, Green WR (1995) Immunohistochemical pathology of the corneal endothelium in the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 36:820–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Holbach LM, Font RL, Shivitz IA, Jones DB (1990) Bilateral keloid-like myofibroblastic proliferations of the cornea in children. Ophthalmology 97:1188–1193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Holbach LM, Font RL, Wilhelmus KR (1991) Recurrent herpes simplex keratitis with concurrent epithelial and stromal involvement. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural observations. Arch Ophthalmol 109:692–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Holbach LM, Asano N, Naumann GO (1998) Infection of the corneal endothelium in herpes simplex keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol 126: 592–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Holland EJ, Daya SM, Stone EM, Folberg R et al. (1992) Avellino corneal dystrophy. Clinical manifestations and natural history. Ophthalmology 99:1564–1568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hoppenreijs VP, Pels E, Vrensen GF, Treffers WF (1996) Corneal endothelium and growth factors. Sury Ophthalmol 41:155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Illingworth CD, Cook SD (1998) Acanthamoeba keratitis. Sury Ophthalmol 42:493–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ingraham HJ, Guber D, Green WR (1985) Radial keratotomy. Arch Ophthalmol 103:683–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Iwamoto M, Nawa Y, Maumenee IH, Young-Ramsaran J, Matalon R, Green WR (1990) Ocular histopathology and ultrastructure of Morquio syndrome (systemic mucopolysaccharidosis IV A). Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 228:342–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kaas-Hansen M (1993) The histopathological changes of keratoconus. Acta Ophthalmol 71:411–414Google Scholar
  69. Kaiser PK, Pireda R, Albert DM, Shore JW (1992) “Black cornea” after long-term epinephrine use. Arch Ophthalmol 110:1273–1275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kamai Y, Ushiki T (1991) The three dimensional organisation of collagen fibres in the human cornea and sclera. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 32:2244–2258Google Scholar
  71. Kanis AB, Al-Rajhi AA, Taylor CM, Mathers WD et al. (1999) Exclusion of AR-CHED from the chromosome 20 region containing the PPMD and AD-CHED loci. Ophthalmic Genet 20:243–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kennedy SM, Shankland GS, Lee WR, Sekundo W (1994) Keratitis due to the fungus Acremonium (Cephalosporium) Eye 8:692–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kenney MC, Chwa M (1990) Abnormal extracellular matrix in corneas with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. Cornea 9:115–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kenney MC, Chwa M, Alba A, Saghizadeh M, Huang ZS, Brown DJ (1998) Localization of TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TIMP-3, gelatinase A and gelatinase B in pathological human corneas. Curr Eye Res 17:238–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kim WJ, Rabinowitz YS, Meisler DM, Wilson SE (1999) Keratocyte apoptosis associated with keratoconus. Exp Eye Res 69:475–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Klintworth GK. (1999) Advances in the molecular genetics of corneal dystrophies. Am J Ophthalmol 128:747–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Klintworth GK, Reed J, Stainer GA, Binder PS (1983) Recurrence of macular corneal dystrophy within grafts. Am J Ophthalmol 95:60–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Klintworth GK, Oshima E, Al-Rajhi A, Alsaif A, Thonar EJ-M A, Karcioglu ZA (1997) Macular corneal dystrophy in Saudi Arabia: a study of 56 cases and recognition of a new phenotype. Am J Ophthalmol 124:9–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kocak-Altintas AG, Kocak-Midillioglu I, Akarsu AN, Duman S. (2001) BIGH3 gene analysis in the differential diagnosis of corneal dystrophies. Cornea 20:64–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kompa S, Langefeld S, Kirchhof B, Schrage N (1999) Corneal biopsy in keratitis performed with the microtrephine. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 237:915–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Konishi M, Yamada M, Nakamura Y, Mashima Y (1999)Varied appearance of cornea of patients with corneal dystrophy associated with R124H mutation in the BIGH3 gene. Cornea 18:424–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Koster H, Savoldelli M, Dumon MF, Du Bourg L, Clerc M, Pouliquen Y (1992) A fish-eye-like familial condition with massive corneal clouding and dyslipoproteinaemia. Cornea 11:452–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Krachmer JH, Feder RS, Belin MW (1984) Keratoconus and related non-inflammatory corneal thinning disorders. Sury Ophthalmol 28:293–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kuchle MWR, Green WR, Volcker HE, Barraquer J (1995) Re evaluation of corneal dystrophies of Bowman’s layer and the anterior stroma (Reis-Buckler’s and Thiel-Benke types): a light and electron microscopic study of eight corneas and a review of the literature. Cornea 14:333–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kuffova L, Holan V, Lumsden L, Forrester JV, Filipec M (1999) Cell subpopulations in failed human corneal grafts. Br J Ophthalmol 83:1364–1369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kumar M, Arova R, Sanga L, Sota DS (1997) Black corneal ulcer. Cornea 16:590–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Laganowski HC, Sherrard ES, Kerr Muir MG, Buckley RJ (1991) Distinguishing features of the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome and posterior polymorphous dystrophy: value of specular microscopy. Br J Ophthalmol 75:212–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lang GK, Green WR, Maumenee AE (1986) Clinicopathologic studies of keratoplasty eyes obtained post mortem. Am J Ophthalmol 101:28–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lee WR, Marshall GE, Kirkness CM (1994) Corneal endothelial cell abnormalities in an early stage of the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol 78: 624–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lee SH, Teng SCG (1997) Amniotic membrane transplantation for persistent epithelial defects with ulceration. Am J Ophthalmol 123: 303–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Levy SG, Moss J, Noble BA, McCartney ACE (1996) Early-onset posterior polymorphous dystrophy. Arch Ophthalmol 114: 1265–1268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Liesegang TJ (1992) Biology and molecular aspects of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections. Ophthalmology 99:781–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Liesegang TJ (2001) Herpes simplex virus epidemiology and ocular importance. Cornea 20:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lim L, Pesudovs K, Coster DJ (2000) Penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus: visual outcome and success. Ophthalmology 107:1125–1131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lindquist TD, Sher NA, Doughman DJ (1988) Clinical signs and medical therapy of early acanthamoeba keratitis. Arch Ophthalmol 106:73–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lisch W, Steuhl K-P, Lisch C, Weidle EG et al. (1992) A new band shaped and whorled microcystic dystrophy of the corneal epithelium. Am J Ophthalmol 114:35–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ljubimov AV, Burgeson RE, Butkowski RJ, Couchman JR et al. (1996) Extracellular matrix alterations in human corneas with bullous keratopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 37:997–1007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Loeffler KU (1991) Iris melanocytes on the posterior corneal surface in congenital glaucoma. Cornea 10: 70–74Google Scholar
  99. Loeffler KU, Edward DP, Tso MO (1992) An immunohistochemical study of gelsolin immunoreactivity in corneal amyloidosis. Am J Ophthalmol 113:546–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lohse E, Stock EL, Jones JCR, Braude LS, O’Grady RB, Roth SI (1989) Reis-Buckler’s corneal dystrophy. Immunofluorescent and electron microscopic studies. Cornea 8:200–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lopez JS, Price FW, Whitcup SM, Li Q, de Smet M, Chan CC (1991) Immunohistochemistry of Terrien’s and Mooren’s corneal degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 109:988–992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Lucarelli MJ, Adamis AP (1994) Avellino corneal dystrophy. Arch Ophthalmol 112:418–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lyons CJ, McCartney AC, Kirkness CM, Ficker LA, Steele AD, Rice NS (1994) Granular corneal dystrophy. Visual results and pattern of recurrence after lamellar or penetrating keratoplasty Ophthalmology 101:1812–1817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. McCartney ACE, Kirkness CM (1988) Comparison between posterior polymorphous dystrophy and congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy of the cornea. Eye 2:63–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. McDonnell JM, Garbus JJ, McDonnell PJ (1992) Unsuccessful excimer laser photo-therapeutic keratectomy. Clinicopathologic correlation. Arch Ophthalmol 110:977–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Marmer RH (1987) Radial keratotomy complications. Ann Ophthalmol 19:409–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Marshall GA, Konstas AG, Lee WR (1991a) Immunogold localisation of extracellular matrix components in aged human cornea. I Types I-IV collagen and laminin. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 229:157–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Marshall GE, Konstas AG, Lee WR (1991b) Immunogold localisation of extracellular matrix components in aged human cornea. II Collagen Types V and VI. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 229:164–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Matta CS, Tabbara KF Cameron JA, Hidayat AA, al-Rajhi AA (1991) Climatic droplet keratopathy with corneal amyloidosis. Ophthalmology 98:192–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Mauriello JA Jr, McLean IW, Riddle PJ (1995) Granulomatous reaction to Bowman’s layer in herpetic keratitis and band keratopathy. Can J Ophthalmol 30:203–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Melles GR, Lander F, van Dooren BT, Pels E, Beekhuis WH (2000) Preliminary clinical results of posterior lamellar keratoplasty through a sclerocorneal pocket incision. Ophthalmology 107:1850–1856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Messmer EM, Foster CS (1999) Vasculitic peripheral ulcerative keratitis. Sury Ophthalmol. 43:379–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Miyata K, Drake J, Osakabe Y, Hosokawa Y (2001) Effect of donor age on morphologic variation of cultured human corneal endothelial cells. Cornea 20:59–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Molia LM, Lanier JD, Font RL. (1999) Posterior polymorphous dystrophy associated with posterior amyloid degeneration of the cornea. Am J Ophthalmol 127:86–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mondino BJ (1988) Inflammatory disease of the peripheral cornea. Ophthalmology 95:463–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Mullaney PB, Risco JM, Teichmann K, Millar L (1995) Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy associated with glaucoma. Ophthalmology 102:186–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Nishimura JK, Hodge DO, Bourne WM (1999) Initial endothelial cell density and chronic endothelial cell loss rate in corneal transplants with late endothelial failure. Ophthalmology 106:1962–1965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Norman BC, Oliver J, Cheeks L, Hull DS, Birnbaum D, Green K (1990) Corneal endothelial permeability after anterior chamber silicone oil. Ophthalmology 97:1671–1677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Ormerod DL, Ruoff KL, Meisler DM, Wasson PJ et al. (1991) Infectious crystalline keratopathy. Ophthalmology 98:159–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Patel NP, Kim T, Rapuano CJ, Cohen EJ, Laibson PR (2000) Indications for and outcomes of repeat penetrating keratoplasty, 1989–1995. Ophthalmology 107:719–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Pillai S, Mahmood MA (1991) Postoperative corneal edema secondary to a free fragment of Descemet’s membrane. Arch Ophthalmol 109:20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Pouliquen Y (1987) Keratoconus. Eye 1:1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pouliquen Y, Dhermy P, Renard G, Goichat-Nonnat L, Foster G, Salvoidelli M (1989) Terrien’s disease: clinical and ultrastructural studies. Eye 3:791–802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Quantock AJ, Fullwood NJ, Thonar EJ-M, Waltman SR et al. (1997) Macular dystrophy type II: multiple studies on a cornea with low levels of sulphated keratan sulphate. Eye 11:57–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Rabinowitz YS (1998) Keratoconus. Sury Ophthalmol 42:297–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Radner W, Zehetmayer M, Skorpik C, Mallinger R (1998) Altered organization of collagen in the apex of keratoconus corneas. Ophthalmic Res 30:327–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ramsay AS, Lee WR, Mohammed A (1997) Changing indications for penetrating keratoplasty in the West of Scotland from 1970–1995. Eye 11:357–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Read RW, Chuck RSH, Rao NA, Smith RE (2000) Traumatic Acremonium atrogriseum keratitis following laser assisted in situ keratomileusis. Arch Ophthalmol 118:418–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rhem MN, Wilhelmus KR, Font RL (1996) Infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Candida parapsilosis. Cornea 15:543–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Reiss GR, Campbell JR, Bourne WM (1986) Infectious crystalline keratopathy. Sury Ophthalmol 31:69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Reynolds I, John SL, Tullo AB, Ayad S et al. (1998) Characterization of two corneal epithelium-derived antigens associated with vasculitis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 39:2594–2601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Riley GP, Harrall RL, Watson PG, Cawston TE, Hazleman BL (1995) Collagenase MMP-1 and TIMP-1 in destructive corneal disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Eye 9:703–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ritterband DC, Shah M, Seedor JA (1997) Colletrichium graminocola: a new corneal pathogen. Cornea 16:362–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rodrigues MM, Krachmer JH (1988) Recent advances in corneal stromal dystrophies. Cornea 7:19–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Ross JR, Foulks GN, Sanfilippo FP, Howell DN. (1995) Immunohistochemical analysis of the pathogenesis of posterior polymorphous dystrophy. Arch Ophthalmol 113:340–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ruiz RS, Sattci OA (1991) Spontaneous Descemet’s membrane tear and detachment. Arch Ophthalmol 109:20–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rumelt S, Cohen I, Rehany U (2000) Spontaneous corneal graft ulcerative perforation due to mixed Acanthamoeba and herpes simplex eratitis: a clinicopathologic study. Cornea 19:240–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sano Y, Ksander BR, Streilein JW (2000) Langerhans cells, orthotopic corneal allografts, and direct and indirect pathways of T-cell allorecognition. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:1422–1431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Santo RM, Yamaguchi T, Kanai A, Okisaka S, Nakajima A (1995) Clinical and histopathological features of corneal dystrophies in Japan. Ophthalmology 102:557–567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Schelonka LP, Ogawa GSH, O’Brien TP, Green WR (2000) Acute unilateral immunoprotein deposition in IgM monoclonal gammopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 118:125–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Schlötzer-Schrehardt U, Zagorski Z, Holbach LM, Hofmann-Rummelt C, Naumann GO (1999) Corneal stromal calcification after topical steroid-phosphate therapy. Arch Ophthalmol 117:1414–1418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sekundo W, Seifert P (1996) Monoclonal corneal gammopathy: topographic considerations. German J Ophthalmol 5:262–267Google Scholar
  143. Sekundo W, Marshall GE, Lee WR, Kirkness CM (1994a) Immunoelectron labelling of matrix components in congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 232: 337–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Sekundo WS, Lee WR, Aitken DA, Kirkness CM (1994b) Multirecurrence of corneal posterior polymorphous dystrophy: An ultrastructural study. Cornea 13:509–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sekundo WS, Lee WR, Kirkness CM, Aitken DA, Fleck B (1994c) An ultrastructural investigation of an early manifestation of the posterior polymorphous dystrophy of the cornea. Ophthalmology 101:1422–1431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Sekundo W, Seifert P, Seitz B, Loeffler KU (1999) Long term ultrastructural changes in human corneas after tattooing with non metallic substances. Br J Ophthalmology 83:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Senoo T, Joyce NC (2000) Cell cycle kinetics in corneal endothelium from old and young donors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:660–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Sharif KW, Casey TA, Casey R, Hoe WK (1992) Penetrating keratoplasty for bilateral acute corneal calcification. Cornea 11:155–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Shimazaki J, Hida T, Inoue M, Saito H, Tsubota K (1995) Long term follow up of patients with familial subepithelial amyloidosis of the cornea. Ophthalmology 102:139–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Silva-Araujo A, Tavares AM, Lemos MM, Soares MI, Castro-Correia J, Salgado-Borges J (1993) Primary lipid keratopathy: a morphological and biochemical assessment. Br J Ophthalmol 77:248–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Small KW, Mullen L, Barletta J, Graham K et al. (1996) Mapping of ReisBücklers’ corneal dystrophy to chromosome 5q. Am J Ophthalmol 121:384–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Spirack LD, Waring GO (1991) Excimer laser in monkeys. Arch Ophthalmol 109:15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Sridhar MS, Gopinthan U, Garg P, Sharma S, Rao GN (2001) Ocular nocardia infections with special emphasis on the cornea. Sury Ophthalmol 45:361–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Steuhl K-P, Knorr M, Rohrbach JM, Lisch W, Kaisering E, Thiel HJ (1994) Paraproteinaemic corneal deposits in plasma cell myeloma. Am J Ophthalmol 111:312–318Google Scholar
  155. Stock EL, Feder RS, O’Grady RB, Sugar J, Roth SI (1991) Lattice corneal dystrophy type IIIA. Clinical and histopathologic correlations. Arch Ophthalmol 109:354–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Streeten BW, Qi Y, Klintworth GK, Eagle RC, Bennett K (1999) Immunolocalization of beta ig-h3 protein in 5q31-linked corneal dystrophies and normal corneas. Arch Ophthalmol 117:67–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sundar Raj N, Geiss MJ, Fantes F, Hanna K et al. (1990) Healing of excimer ablated monkey corneas. An immunohistochemical evaluation. Arch Ophthalmol 108:1604–1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Tabbara KF (1986) Climatic droplet keratopathy. Int Ophthalmol Clin 264:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Tuft SJ, Gregory WM, Buckley RJ (1994) Acute corneal hydrops in keratoconus. Ophthalmology 101:1738–1744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Vail A, Gore SM, Bradley BA, Easty DL, Rogers CA, Armitage WJ (1997) Conclusions of the corneal transplant follow up study. Collaborating Surgeons. Br J Ophthalmol 81:631–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wagoner MD (1997) Chemical injuries of the eye: current concepts in pathophysiology and therapy. Sury Ophthalmol 41:275–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wagoner MD, Badr IA, Hidayat AA (1999) Chrysosporium parvum keratomycosis. Cornea 18:616–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Waring GO, Rodrigues MM (1987) Patterns of pathologic response in the cornea. Sury Ophthalmol 31:262–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Waring GO, Malaty A, Grossniklaus H, Kaj H (1995) Climatic proteoglycan stromal keratopathy(a new corneal degeneration) Am J Ophthalmol 120:330–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Weiss JS (1996) Schnyder crystalline dystrophy sine crystals. Recommendation for a revision of nomenclature. Ophthalmology 103: 465–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Weiss JS, Rodrigues MM, Kruth HS, Rajagopalan S, Rader DJ, Kachadoorian H (1992) Panstromal Schynder’s corneal dystrophy. Ultrastructural and histochemical studies. Ophthalmology 99:1072–1081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Williams KA, Brereton HM, Aggarwal R et al. (1995) Use of DNA poly-morphism and polymerase chain reaction to examine the survival of a human stem cell allograft. Am J Ophthalmol 120:342–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Winder AF, Alexander R, Garner A, Johnston D et al. (1996) The pathology of Tangier disease (familial high density lipoprotein deficiency). J Clin Pathol 49:407–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Winder AF, Owen JS, Pritchard PH, Lloyd-Jones D et al. (1999) A first British case of fish-eye disease presenting at age 75 years: double heterozygote for defined and new mutations affecting LCAT structure and expression. J Clin Pathol 52:228–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Yamaguchi T, Tamaki K Kaufman HE, Katz J, Shaw EL (1985) Histologic study of a pair of human corneas after anterior radial keratotomy. Am J Ophthalmol 100:281–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Yang LL, Lambert SR, Lynn MJ, Stulting RD (1999) Long term results of corneal graft survival in infants and children with Peters anomaly. Ophthalmology 106:833–848PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Yee RW, Tio FO, Martinez A et al. (1991) Resolution of microsporidial epithelial keratopathy in a patient with AIDS. Ophthalmology 98: 196–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Yeoh R, Warhurst DC, Falcon MG (1987) Acanthamoeba keratitis. Br J Ophthalmol 71:500–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Zimmerman DR, Fischer RW, Winterhalter KH (1988) Comparative studies of collagens in normal and keratoconus corneas. Exp Eye Res 46:431–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • William R. Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK

Personalised recommendations