Clinical Features of Hypermobility: Locomotor System and Extra-articular

  • Peter Beighton
  • Rodney Grahame
  • Howard Bird


The majority of persons with lax ligaments and loose joints suffer no articular problems. For example, rheumatic complaints were no more prevalent amongst a group of 31 healthy hypermobile blood donors (average age 28 years) than in age- and sex-matched controls (Jessee et al. 1980). For most hypermobile subjects it is a positive attribute which enables enhanced participation in a wide variety of physical activities (see Chap. 9). However, not all are so fortunate, and some experience locomotor and other problems as a direct result of their laxity. When symptoms result, the term hypermobility syndrome (HMS) is applied (Kirk et al. 1967). It must be emphasised that this designation is non-specific and in this context it does not denote any precise disease entity. Within an unselected group of 100 HMS patients, Finsterbush and Pogrund (1980) delineated three patterns of musculoskeletal complaint: (1) mild complaints of long duration, (2) acute episodes at various sites and (3) a combination of these.


Idiopathic Adolescent Scoliosis Rectal Prolapse Rheumatic Fever Marfan Syndrome Mitral Valve Prolapse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Beighton
    • 1
  • Rodney Grahame
    • 2
  • Howard Bird
    • 3
  1. 1.MRC Research Unit for Inherited Skeletal Disorders, Medical School and Groot Schuur HospitalUniversity of Cape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Rheumatology Unit, Division of Medicine, United Medical and Dental SchoolsGuy’s HospitalLondonUK
  3. 3.Royal Bath HospitalUniversity of Leeds, and Clinical Pharmacology Unit (Rheumatism Research)HarrogateUK

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