Advertisement

Biomechanics of Hypermobility: Selected Aspects

  • Peter Beighton
  • Rodney Grahame
  • Howard Bird

Abstract

In an early paper, Sutro (1947) drew attention to the biomechanical aspects of hypermobility. In a study of recurrent effusions in the knees and ankles of American army recruits, he noted an increased range of both active and passive movement in the affected joints. He argued in favour of an “over-length” of certain articular, capsular and ligamentous tissues, and suggested that there might be disproportion in the relative rate of growth of the bones and their attached ligaments.

Keywords

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Joint Laxity Metacarpophalangeal Joint Acetabular Dysplasia Synovial Joint 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ball J, Sharp J (1978) Osteoarthrosis. In: Scott JT (ed) Copeman’s textbook of the rheumatic diseases. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 595–644Google Scholar
  2. Barnett CH (1971) The mobility of synovial joints. Rheumatol Phys Med 11: 20–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bird HA (1983) Joint and tissue laxity. In: Wright V (ed) Topical reviews of the rheumatic disorders, vol. 2. John Wright and Sons Ltd, Bristol, pp 133–166Google Scholar
  4. Bird HA, Tribe CR, Bacon PA (1978) Joint hypermobility leading to osteoarthrosis and chondrocalcinosis. Ann Rheum Dis 37: 203–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bird HA, Hudson A, Eastmond CJ, Wright V (1980) Joint laxity and osteoarthrosis: a radiological survey of female physical education specialists. Br J Sports Med 14: 179–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bora FIN, Miller G (1987) Joint physiology, cartilage metabolism and the aetiology of osteoarthritis. Hand Clin 3: 325–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brodie DA, Bird HA, Wright V (1982) Joint laxity in selected athletic population. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14: 190–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Charnley J (1959) The lubrication of animal joints. In proceedings of a symposium on biomechanics, Institution of Biomechanical Engineers, London, p 12Google Scholar
  9. Cooke AF, Gvozdanovic D (1981) Synthetic lubricants for synovial joints. Dowson D, Wright V (eds) Introduction to the biomechanics of joints and joint replacement. Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd, London pp 139–145Google Scholar
  10. Coomes EN (1962) Lateral instability of the knee following polyarthritis.An experimental study. Ann Rheum Dis 21: 378–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dowson D, Unsworth A, Cooke AF, Gvozdanovic D (1981) Lubrication of joints. In: Dowson D, Wright V (eds) Introduction to the biomechanics of joints and joint replacement. Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd, London, pp 120–133Google Scholar
  12. Frankel VH, Burstein AH, Brooks DB (1971) Biomechanics of internal derangement of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 53: 945–962Google Scholar
  13. Glyn JH, Sutherland I, Walker GF, Young AC (1966) Low incidence of osteoarthrosis of the hip and knee after anterior poliomyelitis: a late review. Br Med J 2: 739–742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grahame R (1970) A method of measuring human skin elasticity in-vivo with observations on the effects of age, sex and pregnancy. Clin Sci 39: 223–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Grahame R, Beighton P (1969) Physical properties of the skin in the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 28: 246–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grahame R, Harvey W (1974) Defect of collagen in growth-hormone disorders. Lancet 2: 1332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grahame R, Harvey W (1975) Cutaneous extensibility in health and disease. Rheumatol Rehabil 14: 87–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hall DA (1981) Biochemistry of cartilage, bone and synovial fluid. In: Dowson D, Wright V (eds) Introduction to the biomechanics of joints and joint replacement. Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd, London, pp 114–119Google Scholar
  19. Helliwell PS, Howe A, Wright V (1988). Lack of objective evidence of stiffness-rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 47: 754–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hjelmstedt A, Asplund S (1983) Congenital dislocation of the hip: a biomechanical study in autopsy specimens. J Paediatr Orthop 3: 491–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hoffman H (1985) Development and evaluation of a synthetic ligament prosthesis. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Symposium on Prosthetic Ligament Reconstruction of the Knee, Scottsdale, ArizonaGoogle Scholar
  22. Inoue M, McGurk-Burleson E, Hollis JM, Woo SL (1987) Treatment of the medial colateral ligament injury. I. The importance of anterior cruciate ligament on the varus-valgus knee laxity. Am J Sports Med 15: 15–21Google Scholar
  23. Jenkins DHR, Forester IW, McKibbins B, Ralis ZA (1977) Induction of tendon and ligament formation by carbon implants. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 58: 53–57Google Scholar
  24. Johns RJ, Wright V (1962) Relative importance of various tissues in joint stiffness. J Appl Physiol 17: 824–828Google Scholar
  25. Kellgren JH, Lawrence JS, Bier F (1963) Genetic factors in generalised osteoarthrosis. Ann Rheum Dis 22: 237–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. MacConaill MA (1932) The function of intra-articular fibro cartilages, with special reference to the knee and inferior radio-ulnar joints. J Anat 66: 210–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Miller EJ, Gay S (1987) The collagens: an overview and update. Methods Enzymol 144: 3–43 Nicholas JA (1980) Injuries to knee ligaments. JAMA 212: 2236–2239Google Scholar
  28. Pond MJ, Nuki G (1973) Experimentally induced osteoarthritis in the dog. Ann Rheum Dis 32: 387–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Radin EL (1976) Aetiology of osteoarthrosis. Clin Rheum Dis 2: 509–522Google Scholar
  30. Rodnan GP, MacLachlan MJ, Brower TD (1959) Neuropathic joint disease ( Charcot joints ). Bull Rheum Dis 9: 183–184Google Scholar
  31. Seedhom BB, Fujikawa K, Atkinson PJ (1984) The Leeds—Keio artificial ligament for replacing the cruciates. In: Engineering and clinical aspects of endoprosthetic fixation. Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd, London, pp 99–109Google Scholar
  32. Silverman S, Constine L, Harvey W, Grahame R (1975) Survey of joint mobility and in vivo skin elasticity in London schoolchildren. Ann Rheum Dis 34: 177–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Skinner HB, Wyatt MP, Stone ML, Hodgdon JA, Barrack RL (1986) Exercise-related knee joint laxity. Am J Sports Med 14: 30–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sutro CJ (1947) Hypermobility of bones due to overstrengthened capsular and ligamentous tissues. Surgery 21: 67–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Weiss AB, Blazina ME, Goldstein AR, Alexander H (1985) Ligament replacement with an absorbable copolymer carbon fiber scaffold — early clinical experience. Clin Orthop 196: 77–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wright V, Johns RJ (1961) Quantitative and qualitative analysis of joint stiffness in normal subjects and in patients with connective tissue diseases. Ann Rheum Dis 20: 26–31Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Beighton
    • 1
  • Rodney Grahame
    • 2
  • Howard Bird
    • 3
  1. 1.MRC Research Unit for Inherited Skeletal Disorders, Medical School and Groot Schuur HospitalUniversity of Cape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Rheumatology Unit, Division of Medicine, United Medical and Dental SchoolsGuy’s HospitalLondonUK
  3. 3.Royal Bath HospitalUniversity of Leeds, and Clinical Pharmacology Unit (Rheumatism Research)HarrogateUK

Personalised recommendations