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Transcranial Doppler Sonography

  • Andrei V. Alexandrov
  • John W. Norris

Abstract

Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) was first introduced by Rune Aaslid and colleagues in 1982 for the noninvasive measurement of blood flow velocities in the major branches of the circle of Willis through the intact skull.1 A 2 MHz frequency pulse wave ultrasonic beam penetrates the skull and the frequency shift of the returned echoes is calculated using the Doppler equation: f D = 2f o v cosθ/(c -cosθ), where f D is the Doppler shift, f o is the emitting frequency, v is the scatterer speed, θ is the Doppler angle and c is the sound propagation speed. The average speed of sound in soft tissues is 1540 m/s and the Doppler angle for TCD examination is assumed to be 0° for all arteries (cos 0° = 1). Therefore the Doppler equation is rearranged to calculate the velocity of moving blood in basal cerebral arteries: v (cm/s) = 77 f D (kHz)/f o (MHz), where the 77 coefficient is valid for the frequency and velocity units shown in parentheses.

Keywords

Carotid Stenosis Pulsatility Index Intracranial Artery Transcranial Doppler Sonography Carotid Artery Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrei V. Alexandrov
  • John W. Norris

There are no affiliations available

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