Calcium and Vitamin D

  • R. L. Prince


The role of nutritional interventions for prevention of fracture relates to primary and secondary prevention, that is nutritional intervention before and after the first fracture. In the past, data on the efficacy of treatment with calcium and vitamin D have been controversial. In particular the epidemiological evidence that high dietary intakes of calcium can prevent fracture has been quite variable. With the advent of controlled clinical trials using bone density as an end-point it has become clear that calcium with or without vitamin D therapy can lead to reductions in the rate of bone loss. Furthermore calcium and vitamin D therapy in elderly women can lead to reductions in fracture rates in populations living in sunlight-deprived parts of the Northern Hemisphere. This chapter will review the physiological and cell biological basis of the effects of nutritional treatment with calcium and vitamin D and the effects on bone histology. The epidemiological data, bone density data and fracture end-point data will then be reviewed and clinical recommendations will be made.


Calcium Intake Extracellular Calcium Distal Tubule Lactose Intolerance Dietary Calcium Intake 
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  • R. L. Prince

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